This blog is devoted to giving brief answers to questions about Eucharistic faith and practice.
Jan. 26, 2018
Could you say something about the concept of “receptionism?”
“Receptionism” is basically the idea that the reality of the sacrament of the Christ’s body and blood is dependent on the act of receiving it. I think it traces back to Martin Luther’s early teaching that a communicant receives the benefits of Holy Communion only on the basis of faith. In his Treatise on Penance and disputations of 1518 he rejected the idea that the sacrament is efficacious “ex opere operato,” that is, that it produces its effect (i.e. forgiveness of sins) because it is done—unless the communicant obstructs the benefits by actual or intended sin. In The Babylonian Captivity (1520) he specified that this faith is vested in the words of Christ, “This is my body, given for you.” After being engaged in controversy over the real presence with Zwingli and the Swiss reformers in the later 1520s, Luther shifted his emphasis his emphasis from faith alone to word and faith. In The Small Catechism he teaches that the words, “given for you” and “shed for you for the forgiveness of sins,” “when accompanied by the physical eating and drinking, are the essential thing in the sacrament, and whoever believes these very words has what they declare and state, namely, the forgiveness of sins.” In The Large Catechism he declares that “if you take the word away from the elements or view them apart from the Word, you have nothing but ordinary bread and wine.”
It seems that some of Luther’s followers, influenced by the Strasbourg reformer Martin Bucer, came to understand not just that “my faith” is what makes the sacrament efficacious for me, but that the reality of the sacrament depends on the faith of the communicant. This suggests that the bread and wine are not a sacrament to those who don’t believe. But on the basis of Luther’s later writings it is clear that it is not the faith of the communicant but the words of Christ make the sacrament. That’s why the words of Christ are not to be omitted in the celebration and administration of the sacrament. Yes, one receives the benefits of the sacrament by faith alone; but the sacrament is real even if the faith of the communicant is lacking. Bucer could agree that the unworthy receive the sacrament (communicatio indignorum). But Luther held that even the ungodly receive the sacrament (communicatio impiorum). One can eat and drink the sacrament to one’s judgment as well as to one’s benefit (1 Cor. 11:29).
I understand that some 17th century orthodox Lutherans taught that the real presence of Christ is limited to the act of eating and drinking. Only what is consumed is the sacrament, no other bread and wine on the altar. This would be another understanding of “receptionism.” In any event, “receptionism” does not recognize the efficacy of the word of Christ to make the sacrament, whether it is received in faith or not, whether it is received at all (although not to eat and drink would be an abuse of the sacrament). There is an anti-Roman Catholic teaching of transubstantiation embedded in the teaching of ” “receptionist.” This has bedeviled Lutheran Eucharistic faith and practice from the beginning.
Jan. 22, 2018
Communion on Ash Wednesday
Should The Sacrament of the Altar be omitted at congregation Services on Ash Wednesday? Many Lutheran congregations begin the fast with the Feast on that day.
Evangelical Lutheran Worship indicates that the Holy Communion may be included in the Ash Wednesday Service or there may be a Service without Communion, ending with the Intercessions, Concluding Prayer, Our Father, Sending, and Dismissal (p. 254, Pew Edition). I served on the Church Year committee in the ELCA’s Renewing Worship project and worked on the special liturgies for Lent and Holy Week. I argued that Holy Communion should not be celebrated on the fast days of Ash Wednesday and Good Friday.
The distinction between fasting and feasting as it relates to the Eucharist eludes Western Christians. In the ancient church, and continuing in the Eastern Churches today, the Eucharist is not usually celebrated on a fast day, whereas in the West Masses came to be celebrated on every day except Good Friday. The logic of the relationship between Eucharist and fasting is simple: first, the Eucharist is a liturgy of praise and thanksgiving and fast days are days of lament and penitence; second, the Eucharist is a meal and you don’t fast and eat at the same time. However, the desire of Christians of antiquity to break their fast by receiving the bread and wine of Holy Communion led to the development of the Liturgy of the Pre-Sanctified. In this liturgy the elements reserved from the Sunday Eucharist are distributed to the faithful with appropriate devotional texts. (In the Western Church Sundays are never fast days, not even during Lent; they are days of the eucharistic feast. In the Eastern Churches Lenten Sundays are relaxed fast days on which the Divine Liturgy is celebrated.) In Byzantine Rite Churches this form of Communion is offered on Wednesdays and Fridays during Lent (the traditional fast days throughout the years, except during the Easter season) at Vespers. This is because Communion is offered at the end of the fast day and before the next fast day begins, that is, at the time of Vespers. (The practice of taking food at the end of a fast day and before the next fast day begins is also observed by Jews and Muslims.)
The one celebration of the Mass of the Pre-sanctified in the Western Rite is on Good Friday. However, there is some experience of distributing Communion with what is essentially the pre-sanctified (previously consecrated) elements in the tradition of the Extended Distribution of Communion to the sick, whether that is done after the Sunday Eucharist on Sunday or later during the week. If pastors desire to make this form of Holy Communion available at the end of the day on Ash Wednesday, a form of the pre-sanctified for Lutherans on Ash Wednesday could include: bringing the consecrated bread and wine to the altar after the intercessions, concluding prayer, and Lord’s Prayer of the Ash Wednesday Liturgy during the singing of “Lamb of God;” the proclamation “The gifts of God for the people of God;” the distribution of the sacrament, followed by a post-communion prayer, blessing, and sending.
If it would be out of the frame of reference for Lutherans to be communed exclusively from the reserved sacrament, the parish could simply offer the Ash Wednesday Liturgy without Communion. In any event, Ash Wednesday should not be a eucharistic day, in my opinion, because it is the day that calls for the beginning of the Lenten fast. This liturgy of the word with litany of penitence and distribution of ashes is what I offered in my congregation during the last several years of my pastorate, and with explanation about the distinction between fasting and feasting this non-eucharistic, non-communion service was accepted.
See my Frank Answers About Daily Communion and Lenten Disciplines for further information on Communion and fasting.
Pre-sanctified gifts served by Serbian patriarch
Use of gluten-free bread for Communion
What is your take on the Vatican’s ruling on gluten free wafers? Is there a biblical citation which require wheat and can Lutherans hold to concomitance?
Answer: To require .009% gluten to make the bread real wheat is the endth degree of casuistry, in my Frank opinion. Undoubtedly bread made from grains is the biblical precedent, but we don’t know what kind of bread Jesus used. If the Lord’s Supper was instituted at a Passover Seder (synoptic gospels), the bread was unleavened. If the Lord’s Supper was instituted before the Passover (fourth gospel), it probably was leavened. The Eastern Church uses leavened bread. The Western Church didn’t require unleavened bread before the early Middle Ages.
The real issue is why there has been an increase of gluten intolerance and celiac disease in America. Why can people with gluten intolerance eat bread in Europe? The answer seems to be that in America we are using a blended strain of wheat germs that produce bumper crops whereas an older strain is used in Europe. There’s also a thought that too much gluten has gotten into our diet generally, more than our bellies can tolerate. While the science is not totally settled on this, it would seem that the Catholic Church should take the lead in experimenting with growing the old strain of wheat or encouraging some farmers to do so. If that solves the problem, there may be a market for old strain wheat bread. I know people with gluten intolerance would prefer to be able to eat regular bread.
In the meantime we can appeal to the doctrine of concomitance that we receive the entire Christ under either species and people receive and consume what they can tolerate. Yes, the Lutheran Confessions argue for receiving both bread and wine (Augsburg Confession 22 and Apology 22). But the argument in the Confessions is that the papal church had gone so far as to declare as heretics those who favored the fullness of Christ’s institution (Jan Hus was burned at the stake). But concomitance was originally a justification for in extremis situations in the communion of baptized infants and the sick who could not swallow bread and communed with the WINE only. How much better it would be to provide some form of gluten-free bread for those who need it. In my experience this accommodation can be made without a lot of fuss and calling attention to the fact that GLUTEN-FREE BREAD IS AVAILABLE. A simple announcement in the worship folder suffices, and the pastor usually knows who needs it—another reason why the pastor should serve the bread.
What are your thoughts on alternates to wine in communion? I know grape juice is common. I’ve seen even nonalcoholic wine. But I’ve also seen apple juice communion. Could you do a frank answers on this?
Answer: The beverage for the Lord’s Supper is wine because our Lord used it in his institution (probably at a Passover Seder) and the Eucharist is a festive meal. Preferably wine with a little kick to it to produce a slight inebriation. Preferably good wine. Either red or white. Either dry or sweet. If grape wine is not available, then rice wine like Japanese sake. Nonalcoholic wine could be available for children and alcoholics. Maybe a different color than the regular wine so as not to confuse them. But grape juice and apple juice are out. Coke and other sodas are definitely out. Beer is way out, unless you’re a German pope.
(Yes, this is photo shopped.)
Mixing consecrated and unconsecrated Communion elements
Question: An LCMS colleague sent me an E-mail inquiry concerning the disposition of consecrated elements remaining after the Mass. I’m wondering if you can shed any light on the mixing of previously consecrated and non-consecrated wafers and wine.
Answer: You don’t mix consecrated and unconsecrated elements. If additional supplies are needed during the distribution you bless them. However, you can add unconsecrated wine from flagons to consecrated wine in chalices during the distribution. It is consecrated “by contagion.” (This is the practice I see in Ordo Romanus Primus when consecrated wine from the chalice on the altar is poured into the vats of wine from which communicants drink with a straw.) I usually bless the wine in the chalice(s) and maybe one cruet on the altar, but not the wine in the other cruets on a credence table and not on the altar. But the communion ministers must not run out of wine; they need to signal the acolytes when they need a refill. After the service the consecrated bread and wine are either consumed or set aside for further distribution, as in the communion of the sick. What is reserved should be kept separate from the unconsecrated elements, perhaps in an ambry. I used to keep what I needed for the communion of the sick in the little ciborium and cruets in my private communion kit. If they were not used in a reasonable length of time, I consumed them.
Reserving the wafers is easy and pastors too easily default to using them since freshly baked communion bread will not keep and needs to be consumed. I don’t think we need to default to wafers. We need to develop enough experience using freshly baked communion bread that the presiding minister knows how much is needed. I would note that the Orthodox have figured this out. Before the liturgy the priests cut out of the loaf what is needed for Communion. Other pieces of that loaf, and other loafs not needed for the Communion (the Antedoron), are broken up and distributed to the worshipers after the Liturgy as food for the journey home.