In your Frank Answers dealing with questions about Lent you stress the practice of fasting. Fasting is a problem for many people today. We don’t receive much guidance from the churches on Lenten fasting and we’re often in social situations where meat is served even on Fridays. How can we observe the Lenten fast in today’s world?
First, let’s recognize that fasting was a normal part of Christian life since the first century. On Ash Wednesday we hear from the Gospel of Matthew Jesus’ teaching on the three notable duties of almsgiving, prayer, and fasting (Matthew 6:1-16). Jesus assumed that his disciples would keep the discipline of fasting. “Whenever you fast..”, not if you fast. The important thing in his teaching is that none of these disciplines, including fasting, give you spiritual bragging rights before God or before others.
The church order known as the Didache (Teaching of the Twelve) at the end of the first century prescribed Wednesdays and Fridays as fast days (to distinguish Christians from the Jews who fasted on Mondays and Thursdays). Tertullian at the beginning of the third century explained the Friday fast as a participation in the passion of Christ. Wednesday became a weekly penitential day (Psalm 51). This remained a Christian practice in the Eastern and Western Churches down through the centuries. On the origins of the Great Fast of Lent (Quadragesima or the Forty Days) see Frank Answers About Our Problems with Lent.
The Gospel for the First Sunday in Lent has historically been the temptations of Christ in the wilderness after his Baptism.
The first temptation in both Matthew 4 and Luke 4 is the temptation to turn stone into bread to satisfy his hunger. Adam and Eve were tempted by food — the fruit of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. As the serpent in the Garden of Eden tempted the first humans with food, so the devil tempted Jesus with food. The first temptation has been interpreted as a temptation of the Son of God to use his power to satisfy his own needs. Jesus responded by reminding the devil of the Torah’s teaching in Deuteronomy that “man does not live by bread alone.” But let’s not forget that the tempter was reminding Jesus of real needs for a real human body.
The ancient church fathers and the Eastern churches to this day recommend and prescribe much fasting. But, as the question points out, modern Western people have great difficulty with fasting (as opposed to dieting). The great scholarly work of Peter Brown, The Body and Society: Men, Women, and Sexual Renunciation in Early Christianity (Columbia University Press, 1988; revised edition 2008) exposes our modern problem with fasting. Simply put: our modern Western bodies are not the same as the bodies of earlier times and other places in the world. Drawing on the work of the French philosopher-social historian Michel Foucault in his History of Sexuality, Brown reminds us of the sharp discontinuities between our overly-fed modern Western bodies and the under-fed bodies of ordinary human beings in antiquity (as well as in some parts of the world today). In plain fact, some bodies are capable of thriving on less than we are, and often have to. In part a cosmology or worldview is involved here that eludes us today. This is seen in the practices of the desert fathers and other ascetics in the ancient world. Let me quote from Peter Brown at length:
“There is no doubt as to the terrible privations that were involved even in the relatively stable life of the Pachomian monasteries. But we must remember that the body-image which the ascetics brought with them into the desert gave considerable cognitive and emotional support to their hope for change through self-mortification. It takes some effort of the modern imagination to recapture this aspect of the ascetic life. The ascetics of late antiquity tended to view the human body as an ‘autarkic’ system. In ideal conditions, it was thought capable of running on its own ‘heat’; it would need only enough nourishment to keep that heat alive. In its ‘natural’ state—a state with which the ascetics tended to identify with Adam and Eve—the body had acted like a finely tuned engine, capable of ‘idling’ indefinitely, It was only the twisted will of fallen men that had crammed the body with unnecessary food, thereby generating in it the dire surplus of energy that showed itself in physical appetite, in anger, and in the sexual urge. In reducing the intake to which he had become accustomed, the ascetic slowly remade his body. He tuned it into an exactly calibrated instrument. It’s drastic physical changes, after years of ascetic discipline, registered with satisfying precision the essential, preliminary stages of the long return of the human person, body and soul together, to an original, natural and uncorrupted state” (p. 223).
The ascetic, of course, engaged in permanent fasting. The ordinary Christian had Wednesdays and Fridays and the Great Fast of Lent to keep the body tuned, as well as other fasting times throughout the year. But our ancient ancestors in the faith were starting from a better state than we are in recalibrating our bodies to “an original, natural…state,” one that the ancients thought would also foreshadow their resurrection bodies. Considering where we modern Westerners are starting from, a half-hearted fast on a few Lenten Fridays is not going to get us anywhere near this original or future state.
But the fact is that our churches could do more to help us in recovering the physicality as well as the spirituality of fasting, including in what is served in Lenten suppers. In my final congregation I asked a celebrated chef who is a member of the congregation to prepare a Lenten cook book with recipes for meatless or fish-based meals. Vegetarian cook books abound.
I have come up with a half-measure fasting for myself. Fasting is the spiritual discipline of subjugating the flesh by depriving it of flesh—meat. That is the time-honored element to “give up” during Lent. (Meat was not an ordinary part of the ancient diet; it was served at feasts.) One could include all meat products in this fast, but I start just with the flesh. No meat on Fridays. If possible, make Wednesdays (the other traditional Christian fast day) also a meatless day. Then add no meat for breakfast and lunch: no bacon or sausage, no lunch meat. If your schedule requires fast food, many places offer veggie burgers and tuna sandwiches. This is doable. By the time we get to Holy Week you could fast daily in anticipation of the Easter feast.
It is important to emphasize that fasting is not for the sake of dieting, detoxifying, or supporting world hunger. Those are good and noble purposes, but they can be done at any time. Nor is the Lenten fast just about self-denial. It is a penitential discipline of mortifying the flesh to prepare our bodies, ourselves, for regeneration and resurrection.
I have developed a motto for the Lenten disciplines of fasting, prayer, and almsgiving that may be helpful: tone up, tune in, reach out. Fasting is an ascetic practice. “Ascetic” comes from the Greek word ascesis, which means “discipline,” such as athletes submit to when they are exercising to run a race. St. Paul used this term in 1 Corinthians 9:24-27 to compare the Christian life to running a race. The runner needs to tone up his body, tune into his mind, and reach out to the goal of the finish line. Athletes are known for eating a lot, but they are also careful about what they eat. Certainly lots of protein from lean meat, fish. poultry, and eggs, but also fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and healthy fats. They leave high-sodium, high-sugar, heavily processed foods on store shelves. They follow a set diet, eating some things but fasting from others. So, too, in fasting we are submitting to a disciplined diet of eating some things, but not others. It’s not hard; it just requires ascesis – discipline.
Pastor Frank Senn