ascension of Christ, festivals, liturgy

Frank Answers About the Ascension of Christ

Our church’s worship and music committee had a discussion about whether to have an Ascension Eucharist on Ascension Thursday evening or Wednesday evening ahead of the regularly scheduled choir rehearsal or to transfer it to the following Sunday. And if we transfer it to the following Sunday should the Ascension propers replace those for the Seventh Sunday of Easter or should the ascension just be noted in hymns and prayers? Do you have a thought about the best time for a liturgical observance of the Ascension? These are practical concerns about attendance and scheduling. But overriding them is the question: how important is it to observe the Ascension of our Lord?

Let me begin with the final question because it may have some bearing on the “practical concerns” decision, which I assume was made some time ago.

Let’s begin with the fact that “He ascended into heaven” is an article of faith in both the Apostles’ and Nicene Creeds. In the Creeds it is paired with Christ’s resurrection just as Christ’s conception by the Holy Spirit is paired with “born of the Virgin Mary.” The “conception” is the feast of the Annunciation (March 25 – nine months before Christmas), which doesn’t receive the same heightened liturgical observance as the Nativity. So, too, the feast of the Ascension (40 days after the resurrection in Luke’s chronology) doesn’t receive the same liturgical attention as Easter Day. Yet a case can be made that both the Annunciation and Ascension are theologically of equal importance as Christmas and Easter, if not more so. There would be no nativity without conception, which is really the beginning of the incarnation of the Word of God. And the importance of Jesus’ resurrection is that he is in heaven “at the right hand of the Father,” the position of clout.

In the Gospels Jesus’ ascension to the Father is connected with his resurrection from the dead. In the Gospel of John when Mary Magdalene encounters the risen Christ in the garden, Jesus tells her not to hold on to him, “because I have not yet ascended to the Father.” She is given a commission to “go to my brothers and say to them, ‘I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and to your God.” (John 20:17)  Note that she is not commissioned to announce Jesus’ resurrection but his ascension. Yet that evening, and the following Sunday, Jesus appeared to the disciples. So had he not yet ascended? Or had he ascended and was making appearances to the disciples? (There are more post-resurrection appearances in John 21.)

A careful reading of the Gospel of Luke, chapter 24, suggests that everything it reports about Jesus after the resurrection took place on the day of resurrection itself: walking along with two disciples on the road to Emmaus, explaining the Scriptures to them, stopping to eat supper with them, and being recognized in the breaking of the bread. They then “that very hour” went back to Jerusalem and told the other disciples what they had experienced. “While they were talking about this, Jesus himself stood among them and said, ‘Peace be with you.'” He convinces them that he is not a ghost; he has flesh and bones and he eats a piece of boiled fish in their presence. After some final words about how everything that has happened to  him fulfills the Scriptures, he commissions the apostles to be his witnesses, tells them to remain in Jerusalem “until you have been clothed with power from on high,” then leads them out as far as Bethany, blesses them, “and was carried up into heaven.” (Luke 24:51). This seems to be an ascension of Jesus on the very day of his resurrection.

Why then does Luke begin the sequel to this Gospel, the Acts of the Apostles, by speaking of Jesus appearing to the apostles “during forty days and speaking about the kingdom of God?” (Acts 1:3) Apparently one time (one last time?) when Jesus was with his apostles, “he was lifted up, and a cloud took him out of their sight.” (1:9) As they were gazing up, two men in  white robes stood by them and said “This Jesus, who has been taken up from you into heaven, will come in the same way as you saw him go into heaven.” (1:11) Perhaps the ascension story in Acts 1 is simply a definitive leave-taking — Jesus impressing on his disciples that he will no longer be with them in the way they had known him.

The Ascension of Christ by Jan Matejko

So from one evangelist we have two ascensions of Jesus—on the day of resurrection and forty days later.  In the Gospel of John, the resurrection, the ascension, and the giving of the Holy Spirit to the apostles all occur on one day. Luke spreads out these events over forty days (ascension) and fifty days (Pentecost). Forty is a significant amount of time in the Bible (Noah in the flood forty days; forty years of Israel wandering in the wilderness; Saul, David, and Solomon each reigning as king for forty years; Elijah and Jesus both fasting for forty days.) Luke obviously wanted to associate Jesus’ post-resurrection appearances “during forty days” with this significant biblical number.

Where was Jesus after his resurrection when he was not meeting with the disciples? I’d say he was in heaven and was passing back and forth between these two dimensions.  The church’s liturgical observance of Jesus’ ascension 40 days after the resurrection in Luke’s chronology was a consequence of the development of pilgrimage rites in the Holy Land during the fourth century.  In their newly-established freedom during the reign of Emperor Constantine many Christians were making pilgrimages to the Holy Land, as they called Roman Palestine. They gathered at sites associated with the life of Jesus in the gospels. The local church in Jerusalem and the Holy Land accommodated the interests and needs of Christian pilgrims by arranging liturgical rites at these places of pilgrimage, including on the Mount of Olives where a church was erected. On the actual dates of these events, as the Spanish nun Egeria tells us in her Travel Diary, special processions took place to the sites during which the pilgrims chanted psalms and litanies. At the site itself the Gospel narrative or another Scripture pericope which tells of the event was read. Then there was a procession back to the main Church in Jerusalem for the celebration of the Eucharist. Pilgrims brought these practices back to their home churches. This is how the liturgical calendar expanded and spread during the fourth and fifth centuries. This is how the Festival of the Ascension secured a place in the liturgical calendar forty days after Easter.

Constantine’s mother, the Empress Helena, built a church of the Ascension on the Mount of Olives. It was taken by Saladin in the 12th century and turned into a mosque. Only this octagonal chapel remains on or near the site of our Lord’s ascension. It contains a stone slab that is said to be the last place Jesus’ feet touched on earth.

The fact that the ascension of Jesus became an article of faith in the ecumenical creeds—“He ascended into heaven, and is seated at the right hand of the Father”—made it all the more important to observe this event. It was important for Christian faith and life. Why?

First, “seated at the right hand of the Father” Christ is our “mediator and advocate” with the Father. As our human brother, as the Letter to the Hebrews emphasizes, Jesus knows our needs and presents them to the Father. “For we do not have a high priest who is unable to sympathize with our weaknesses, but we have one who in every respect has been tested as we are, yet without sin.” (Hebrews 4:15) Hence all Christian prayer is offered “through Jesus Christ our Lord.”

Because of this understanding, it became customary in medieval Europe to have processions through the fields on the three days leading up to Ascension Thursday, singing litanies which gathered up all human needs, including prayers for the seed time and a good harvest, suggesting that in his ascension Jesus took all these needs with him into heaven. The Sunday before the Ascension (the Fifth Sunday after Easter, Sixth Sunday of Easter in current lectionaries) was called “Rogate,” “Ask” Sunday.

rogation procession

Second, because Christ is “seated at the right hand of the Father,” he is in a position of authority and rule far above all rule and authority (Ephesians 1). He is the ruler of the universe “for the sake of the church.” Icons in Orthodox churches present Christ as “Pantocrator,” “ruler of all things.” We know that Christ is finally in charge and that all life, all human history, will end at his feet. There may be a Caesar on the earthly throne,  but our Lord (“Kyrios”) is on the heavenly throne. There is a political dimension to the ascension of Christ.

Third, Jesus ascended bodily. As true man as well as true God, the Son of God has a body and that risen and glorified body is taken into God (“heaven”). In Christ, God has a body, and God relates bodily to us, who are bodily creatures, in the sacraments. By means of the sacraments we are in union with Christ.  (See Frank Answers About the Body—God’s and Ours)

The Eucharist as the real presence of Christ is simply incomprehensible without Christ’s ascension into heaven. The human nature of Christ is circumscribed by time and place. The historical Jesus could only be in one place at a time. But now in heaven, the human nature of Jesus shares the omnipresence of the divine nature (this is called the communicatio idiomata—“the sharing of attributes”) and is therefore capable of being present in the bread and wine on every earthly altar when the bread and wine are proclaimed by the words of Christ to be Christ’s body and blood. Jesus is not absent from the earthly church; he is present in a more immediate and saturating way.

Elevation of the host Meister_des_Heiligen_Ägidius

The elevation of the host—the high point of the late medieval Mass, signaled by the the words “This is my body” and the ringing of bells, at which worshipers knelt in adoration of Christ present in the transubstantiated bread.

Finally, in the “Great Commission” is a part of the Ascension narratives in the gospels. Jesus departs from his disciples leaving them some work to do: taking the good news of his resurrection and forgiveness of sins to all nations. But they are to wait “until you are filled with power from on high”—the outpouring of the Holy Spirit on the Day of Pentecost.

These and other meanings of the ascension suggest that the Ascension of our Lord should be observed so that these meanings can be unpacked. As to when to celebrate Christ’s ascension as a festival, the obvious answer is: on the day of the Ascension in the liturgical calendar. In the culture of Christendom it was possible for the holy day to be also a holiday, and the Mass or Eucharist could be the main event of the day (probably celebrated in the morning). Ascension is still a holiday in some European nations. Since that is not the case for us, observing the Eve of the Ascension (a Wednesday night) probably makes the strongest liturgical case because the eve is the beginning of the liturgical day. But I think it is better to transfer the Ascension to the following—or preceding!—Sunday than to have no observance of it at all. It is too important an article of faith to be ignored.

Here’s a suggestion for an Ascension Eve or Ascension Day liturgy.  As the weather gets nicer in the northern hemisphere there could be an outdoor Rogation procession singing psalms and the Great Litany. The procession ends at the church door. The Lesson from Acts 1 is read. Then the congregation moves into the church nave singing hymns (the hymn of the Venerable Bede, “A Hymn of Glory Let Us Sing,” with alleluias would be nice). The Gospel is read and the paschal candle is extinguished. After a homily the liturgy proceeds with the Nicene Creed, the greeting of peace, and the Eucharist.

Even if the parish has an Ascension Eve or Ascension Day liturgy, it would be appropriate to sing Ascension hymns on the Seventh Sunday of Easter.  I’ve always felt that Easter 7 feels like the Sunday of Jesus’ absence. That’s not true, of course, but absence has been an important religious experience for individuals and the church in modern times. There is that human aspect to consider for the disciples and for us. Can we wait faithfully “in the meantime” for what is promised?

Pastor Frank Senn


Ascension of Christ, Salvador Dali, 1958


  1. Eugene A. Koene

    One thing has always puzzled me. As you point out, “the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist is simply incomprehensible apart from the Ascension. The human nature of Christ is circumscribed, etc.” Yet we have always understood it in terms of Christ’s words at the Last Supper, and that he actually imparted his Body and Blood to his disciples on that occasion, which marked the institution of the Blessed Sacrament. The Ascension had obviously not yet taken place. So was the full reality of the Sacrament already effected in the Upper Room? I do not recall this ever being discussed in seminary or anywhere else. St Thomas Aquinas is quite clear in his hymn “Pange lingua” that Christ “gave himself with his own hand” (LBW 120).

    • Comment by post author

      The ascension had not taken when Jesus instituted his sacramental Supper at his so-called last supper; neither had the atoning sacrifice accomplished in his death on the cross or the resurrection which made possible the forgiveness of sins, new life and salvation conveyed in Holy Communion. The full reality of the sacrament was effected in the Upper Room in anticipation of the sacrament in which we proclaim and celebrate the full mystery of faith: Christ has died. Christ is risen. Christ will come again. You cite Thomas Aquinas. Interestingly, the words over the cup in the Roman Canon as Thomas would have known them are future tense: “This is the chalice of my blood of the new and everlasting covenant, a mystery of faith; it shall be shed for you and for many for the remission of sins.” Many believe the words of Christ should not be in the future tense when used in the present celebration, but they do reflect a now/not yet tension in terms of what the disciples received in the upper room and what we receive in the Eucharist in its full effect.

      • Eugene A. Koene

        Thanks, Fr. Frank, this is helpful. I would merely observe that while Luther and others in his wake have used the doctrine of Christ’s ubiquity — connected with the Ascension — to “bolster” the Lutheran understanding of the Real Presence, they have always insisted that the bottom-line “proof,” if you will, is purely in the words of Christ at the Supper, whereby he connects bread and wine with his real Body and Blood. In the ultimate analysis, it is truly a “mystery of faith.”

  2. I read this again in preparation for this year’s celebration. I (in the churches I have served) have always had an Ascension worship, which enhances the Easter experience and understanding. Blessings, and thanks for your thoughts

  3. Thanks for mentioning this on one of the Facebook posts this past month. I appreciated this as a great resource for our Ascension Day evening service this week.

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