culture, Yoga

Frank Answers About Yoga in the Culture Wars

Question:  The practice of yoga has been suspended by the student board of the student center at the University of Ottawa over concerns that yoga is a “cultural appropriation”. How do you assess these concerns that Yoga is based in a particular religion and that its roots in Indian culture should be respected?  With the growing concern about colonization, will there be a cultural backlash against the practice of yoga?

Frank answers:

Yoga is not a religion. It is a practice that unites body and mind and its techniques have been used by several religions…and by practitioners who espouse no religion.

I am a Christian pastor and theologian who practices yoga. In my view the breathing techniques (pranas), poses (asanas), and meditation practices are religiously neutral, but they have been appropriated by religions (Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism)> One can bring one’s bhakti to the practice of yoga, including a Christian devotion.  (See “Frank Answers About Christian Yoga”.)

Yoga classes may be suspended in one or another university over issues of “cultural appropriation”, but yoga has become a global phenomenon practiced by millions of people around the world and a billion dollar industry.  It is not going to be rolled back.

Cultural appropriation occurs when a culture that’s seen as an oppressor borrows or steals elements of a culture they’re oppressing. A classic case would be American athletic teams appropriating Native American names, practices, and symbols (like the University of Illinois’ Chief Illiniwek doing a war dance in buckskins and headdress at U of I sports events). But it’s hard to see how the charge of colonizing applies to Yoga in North America and the West because yoga was not borrowed, stolen, or even imported from India; it was exported by Indians to the West.

The real questions about power and dominance in the colonization debate have little to do with the general acceptance or rejection of what Western society calls yoga today and more to do with the influences on the presentations of yoga which began nearly 150 years ago, dating back to the British suppression of the teachings. There’s no question that the British suppression of yoga prompted the pioneers of modern yoga to present it to the West in a more accessible form, and to subvert the British administration by gaining admirers and promoters in other countries. But there is a question, raised by scholars such as David Gordon White, about how accessible their own yoga traditions were to them.

During the British Raj in India yoga and ayurvedic medicine were suppressed by the colonial administration. Indian nationalism strove to reclaim these cultural traditions. Toward the end of the 19th century Indian nationalists thought they could gain sympathy from people in the West if they popularized their religious tradition. So they sent the Hindu monk Swami Vivekananda as a sort of missionary to America, where he introduced yoga philosophy in the 1890s and published his book Raja Yoga in 1896. It became a best seller, although it was more yoga as meditation than as the postural practice we have become used to. In the photo below Vivekananda participates in the 1893 World Parliament of Religions.

Vivekananda at 1893 Parliament of World Religions

Kriya Yoga (Yoga of Action) was promoted by Paramahansa Yogananda as a spiritual discipline in his Self-Realization Center, established in Encinitas, California in the 1920s—ironically the same community where there has recently been a public school yoga controversy over teaching yoga in the school because it is a religion. Yogananda sought to open religious dialogue with the West by extolling Christ as a yoga guru and Mahavatar Babaji as the Yogi-Christ of modern India. His Autobiography of a Yogi  (1946) presents a picture of yoga in India not represented by the promoters of modern postural yoga.  Some of authentic yoga traditions were known to Yogananda, but sinister yogis taking over other people’s bodies is not something we would want to get into in the West.

Paramahansa Yogananda

Modern postural yoga was developed in the 1930s by the yoga guru of the Mysore Palace, T. Krishnamacharya, who combined facets of medieval Hatha practices with elements from Indian wrestling exercises, British army calisthenics, and Scandinavian gymnastics. The British occupiers of India looked down on yogis as disreputable and on the Indians in general as weak and unhealthy. Krishnamacharya’s aim was to rehabilitate and use Hatha Yoga to build up physical and mental strength in his students in the cause of Indian nationalism, and he saw what kind of exercises the British Army was using in its camp down the road.


Krishnamacharya was invited but declined to go to the West. But he persuaded his students to take this revitalized Hatha Yoga to the West, including his younger brother-in-law, B. K. S. Iyengar, who developed a way to make postural yoga more accessible to ordinary people by use of blocks and straps. Iyengar was promoted in the West by the famous violinist Yehudi Menuhin, who had become an avid yoga practitioner.


Krishnamacharya’s female Russian student, Indra Devi, set up a yoga studio in Hollywood, California that included Greta Garbo and Gloria Swanson among her celebrity students and published several best sellers, including Forever Young, Forever Healthy : Simplified Yoga for Modern Living (1953) and Yoga for Americans (1959).

Another Krishnamacharyi student, J. Pattabhi Jois, developed the Ashtanga Yoga brand as a vinyasa which emphasized a flow from one pose to another. He established his Jois Institute both in Mysore and in Encinitas in the 1970s.

Krishnamacharyi’s son T. K. V. Desikachar also became a teacher in the West, promoting home practice with his book The Heart of Yoga (1995).

The younger Bikram Choudhury developed his hot yoga practice in the 1970s,  brought it to California, and developed a worldwide network of yoga studios.

Yogi Amrit Desai was the guru behind Kripalu Yoga (named after his guru, Swami Kripalu) as taught at the Kripalu Center for Yoga and Health in Stockbridge, MA.

Swami Rama established the Himalayan Institute of Yoga Science and Philosophy in Pennsylvania.

I could go on and on; these are only the major figures in the exportation of yoga. But in terms of mass marketing, Indian prime minister Narendra Modi beat them all by getting the United Nations to recognize International Yoga Day on June 21 (the summer solstice), which was celebrated with mass yoga demonstrations worldwide.


Prime Minister Modi leads 35,000 participants in a yoga class on June 21 in Rajpath.

Modi leads mass yoga practice

Prime Minister Modi is clearly a yogi. The yoga asanas performed during the International Yoga Day at Rajpath were according to the Common Yoga Protocol, which has been put together by the AYUSH ministry (Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy), which organized the celebration along with the External Affairs ministry. Around thirty-five asanas and pranayamas were performed. Modi clearly intends for yoga to be promoted internationally. “Yoga has the power to bring the entire humankind together!” he tweeted after pitching the idea of an International Yoga Day in his speech at the U.N. General Assembly in 2014.

The charge that yoga has been “cultural appropriated” or “colonized” by the West is complicated because the yoga that the Indian gurus exported to the West had already been westernized as Indian gurus strove to make yoga appealing to the West. Vivekananda’s religious views had been influenced by the European theosophical movement, as David Gordon White has shown in Sinister Yogis (University of Chicago Press, 2009); and Krishnamacharya’s Hatha Yoga included elements of northern European gymnastics, as Mark Singleton has shown in Yoga Body: The Origins of Modern Postural Practice  (Oxford University Press, 2010). These academic studies—by Westerners—question the historical authenticity (the lineages) of the yoga traditions that were exported to the West. In other words, we didn’t receive the real thing. Yoga was already westernized when it was brought to the West. Yet now millions of people worldwide have come to see the benefits of the yoga they are practicing.

The yoga we are practicing has not only been adapted to the West, but also to modern life in India with its health and wellness concerns, as Joseph S. Alter has documented in Yoga in Modern India:  The Body Between Science and Philosophy  (Princeton University Press, 2003).

The Canadian yoga teacher Matthew Remski has argued in Threads of Yoga (2012)  that the yoga of Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras, which was designed for ascetics (renunciates), is not really being practiced in North American yoga studios as Patanjali intended, even though yoga teachers continue to try to make Patanjalian yoga relevant to modern householders. But Indian teachers have been doing the same. We are all learning from historical studies that modern postural yoga is not the kind of yoga codified in Patanjali’s Yoga sutras.  But I think very few of us are likely to join the ranks of India’s naga sadhus (naked holy men) and live in a cave in the Himalayas.

yogi_himalaya31 virasana

In the light of these complexities, learning about and discussing the yoga traditions is a valuable exercise but there is no basis for Western students and university administrators to suspend yoga classes because of perceived “cultural appropriation”.  The Indians themselves taught us what we know about yoga, taught the teachers who are now teaching us students, and encouraged the entrepreneurial approach toward yoga by their own examples. Furthermore, the yoga that the gurus exported already had been influenced by Western spiritual ideas and physical practices. Maybe this assessment will be modified by further investigation into India’s historically authentic yoga traditions. But this is the situation as we currently know it.

There’s no question that yoga is rooted in Indian culture. As Mircea Eliade wrote in Yoga: Immortality and Freedom, it meets “all the deepest needs of the Indian soul.” That should definitely be recognized and respected. And yoga teachers who make use of symbols rooted in Indian culture have an obligation to get them right. It is also possible to teach yoga in studios that do not display Indian symbols, which is often the case when yoga is taught in fitness and health clubs, YMCAs, and other facilities not devoted exclusively to yoga. This avoids some of the worst transgressions of “cultural appropriation.” But it is also possible to use yoga symbols rooted in Indian culture with integrity.

Yoga has been exported for millennia. Tibetan Buddhists have practiced yoga for millennia—which indicates that yoga can also be practiced outside of India and apart from Hinduism. Some Hindus think it can’t be or should not be. Dr. Aseem Shukla, co-founder of the Hindu American Foundation, lamented that “yoga has thrived, but Hinduism has lost control of the brand.” The Hindu American Foundation, whose mission is to shed light on any form of prejudice against Hindus or Hinduism, has initiated a Take Back Yoga movement in an effort to assert yoga as a Hindu religious contribution to civilization. But if yoga has been practiced for 5,000 years, it was practiced before it became systematized in Hinduism. Perhaps a case can be made that Hindus were the first “colonizers” of yoga as elitist Brahmans appropriated folk knowledge.

I would also note that in the melting pot of India between 200 BC and 1200 AD, yoga was a shared discourse between proto-Hindus (Brahmanists, really), Buddhists, Jains, and Sufis. One wonders whether Christians, who were in India perhaps as early as the end of the first century (the so-called Mar Thoma Christians in Kerala), also took a dip in the yoga traditions. Certainly the 19th century physical culture movement that Krishnamacharya appropriated for the revitalization of Hatha Yoga came out of the Christian culture of northern Europe and was an expression of the “muscular Christianity” promoted by the YMCA in its program of building strong bodies, minds, and spirits—also in India, where YMCA leaders trained India’s gymnastic team for the 1924 Olympics.

Bukh's Danish gymnastics

Niels Buhk’s Danish gymnastics system, more vigorous than Ling’s Swedish gymnastics, was adopted by the British Army in 1906 and promoted by the YMCA  in the 1920s and 1930s. Note all the yoga-like poses in this photo.

Religious groups in ancient India swapped yoga techniques and innovated as needed. Thus it is impossible to assign ownership to any practice. In the end, yoga is a time-tested set of methods for relating to the Divine in whatever form is most suitable for each practitioner — or just relating more holistically to the world and to oneself. No particular creed is required, except a basic faith in the possibility of enlightenment, which may be broadly defined as discovering things about reality or at least about oneself.

There’s no question that in America yoga has exploded into dozens of styles (and still counting), each with a brand, just as religions in America have exploded into hundreds of denominations. I practice a basic Hatha Yoga that, on the basis of my historical studies in yoga, I can’t say with certainty antedates the early 20th century in its current asana-dominated form. So it’s unfair to be judgmental about those who practice a style different from mine that may be more recent. There’s no question that yoga has become a big business. But if I find that offensive I can decide not to participate in the yoga consumer culture. Stripped to basics, what more do I need to practice yoga than my body and maybe a carpet to sit on. Oh, yes, I also need a teacher. Yoga has always been transmitted from guru to student. Teachers need to be supported so that they are free of economic burdens to be able to teach students. So it was also in ancient India.

As for yoga being taught in the public schools, school children could be subjected to a lot worse things than learning how to breathe, calm their minds and bodies, and chant together in unison. What we’re dealing here is the craziness in church-state relationships in our public, i.e. government, schools, which has run the gamut from virtually promoting the Judaeo-Christian cultural hegemony to suppressing all religious expressions. Our public schools should be promoting cultural diversity in all its particulars rather than striving for an insipid sameness that offends no one. Yoga can be taught in the schools just for its value in health and fitness and calming and focusing the mind. But there is surely no harm in also teaching students its background — even its religious background — in Indian culture.

Yogi Pastor Frank Senn

Indian boys in a yoga competition.What? I thought that yoga was non-competitive. Oh, well…


  1. If the yoga was just about breathing and calming the mind, it would be safe and harmless for elementary school children. The problem is not in the religious aspects of yoga or in a discussion on how yoga has been influenced by many cultures, the real issue for yoga in schools is the poses themselves. Yoga poses have never been scientifically evaluated according to how they can affect the body and in particular the joint structures of children. Yoga teaching is not regulated and there is not even an accurate record of yoga injuries although the numbers are rising. Humans under the age of 18 do not have fully developed bone structures. There are growth plates at the end of bones that are areas of developing cartilage. This is where bone growth occurs in children. The growth plates are weaker than the nearby ligaments and tendons. Repetitive stress can lead to injury of the growth plate and disrupt the normal growth of the bone. Holding static stretches is a common practice in yoga and this can damage the joint structures of children before puberty. If a child has hyper-mobility syndromes, doing yoga poses at a young age can damage joint tissues for life. Since yoga is not regulated, we should not just assume that yoga poses are safe because they come from a long tradition. I have been working with people who are injured from the practice of yoga poses for over two decades. Many yoga poses that are commonly practiced can cause laxity in the tissues designed to keep joints stable during movement. Breathing, meditation and mindfulness are important for people at any age but it is not necessary to get children to do yoga poses. Let them run and play rather than doing static body positions in yoga . The yoga world is full of articles on how yoga is causing injuries and also people are questioning and changing the way it is done because of this. Children’s joints are not fully developed so it is important that experts in human biomechanics ( not yoga teachers) should be called in before yoga classes become part of our country’s gym classes. Toe touching with straight knees while twisting is ill advised by any physical therapist or trainer. This is the revolved triangle in yoga class and it can damage the hip joint and even cause bulging discs of the spine.

    • Comment by post author

      Thank you for your comments Michaelle. You raise a good point about children’s physical development, but that’s not why some parents have been objecting to teaching yoga in the public schools. It’s not the physical but the perceived spiritual aspects of yoga they object to. As to your concern, however, I would testify that there are some yoga teachers who are working with young children and are well versed in children’s physical development. Also, Bikram’s system may insist on locking the knees. My yoga teacher always emphasizes flexible knees, even in triangle pose.

  2. I understand Michaelle’s concern, as I know there can be untrained Yoga teachers and I realise that Yoga has often been taught that way. But things are changing. Some of us study a great deal and increasingly there’s a rich crossover of disciplines, with professionals like Tom Myers, Susi Hately, and more educating of Yoga teachers about bringing the mindfulness of Yoga and a sound knowledge of functional movement together.
    I would never ask people to lock their knees, or aim to touch their toes with straight legs (just the thought makes me wince, honestly). The physical practice of Yoga does not necessarily involve static stretching, and in fact I include that very rarely.
    As for teaching kids, in the extra professional training I’ve done to teach in that area with Rainbow Kids Yoga I have emphasised not the structure or shape of the poses, not stretching, but letting them find their own way in and out of the poses. It emphasises play, fun, & cooperation using games and a lot of freedom to move in their own way. We might create a forest, acknowledging that all the tress are different. We might make a tunnel of Dogs and Cats to crawl through, and if the Dogs and Cats don’t want to hold the Dog or Cat shape for that long, that makes for all the more fun when the tunnel collapses!
    Quiet time comes naturally when we use long exhales to blow a table tennis ball to each other using a straw. Relaxation and meditation can be threaded through the activities, and is looked forward to at the end of the games and physical play. I would never dream of getting a class into Trikonasana and making them hold it, not only because it would be physically inappropriate, but also, for 6 year olds, very boring!
    It sounds like you’ve had some bad experiences with Yoga teachers where you are, but please rest assured, some of us are qualified, well-trained, always, always, researching and educating ourselves, working and consulting with physios, doctors and health professional around us, and care very much about what we’re doing.

  3. Dear Sir,

    We read your Article, we want to carry the same in our current issue of Sulabh Swachh Bharat, if you give us the permission to do so…. Our current issue is dedicated to World Yoga Day…Our website is
    Waiting for your early response

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