Question: Some conservative preachers decry yoga as promoting sexuality. Do you think it does? And does that matter?
Frank answers: Since I have already dealt with two of the three big reasons conservative Christian leaders warn Christians to stay away from yoga—(1) it is based on Eastern religion (see “Frank Answers About Christians Practicing Yoga”) and (2) it is demonic (see “Frank Answers About Whether Yoga is a Work of the Devil”)—, I might as well tackle the third reason yoga is deemed inappropriate for Christians: (3) Yoga promotes sexuality.
As you might expect, there are no simple answers to your questions. But hang in with me as I unpack a lot of information, some of which might be deemed R-rated.
The concern of conservative Christian preachers is that yoga has an alien character that makes it incompatible with the Christian faith. To get a good statement of that I to go to Albert Mohler’s (in)famous blog article of September 20, 2010, “The Subtle Body—Should Christians Practice Yoga.”
Moehler, president of the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, was reflecting on the content of Stefanie Syman’s book, The Subtle Body: The Story of Yoga in America, which had just been published (New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2010). He wrote:
Syman describes yoga as a varied practice, but she makes clear that yoga cannot be fully extricated from its spiritual roots in Hinduism and Buddhism. She is also straightforward in explaining the role of sexual energy in virtually all forms of yoga and of ritualized sex in some yoga traditions. She also explains that yoga “is one of the first and most successful products of globalization, and it has augured a truly post-Christian, spiritually polyglot country.”
Moehler clarified his concern about the role of sexual energy in yoga when he wrote,
While most adherents of yoga avoid the more exotic forms of ritualized sex that are associated with tantric yoga, virtually all forms of yoga involve an emphasis on channeling sexual energy throughout the body as a means of spiritual enlightenment.”
Yoga Channeling Sexual Energy
I might have responded to Mohler’s 2010 article that I never heard any mention of sex in any yoga class I attended and I didn’t feel extra sexy for having practiced yoga. But a month or two before Moehler’s blog article appeared, I had a private session with a young male yoga teacher on how yoga improves one’s sexual performance.
I used to attend this yoga teacher’s vinyasa class at the local YMCA. As a young yoga teacher he was trying to get some classes going outside the Y (for extra income, I’m sure). One day he announced at the end of the class: “You know, we’re all adults living in the 21st century and we should be able to discuss the fact that yoga can be great for your sex life.” He said that he was offering a class in which he would talk about how yoga helps with sex and show us some techniques in a venue outside the Y. It turned out that I was the only one who showed up for his class. He said that he was willing to give instruction one-on-one since I had already paid for the session, if that was OK with me. I’ll give this young man credit. That 27-year old yoga teacher gave a class on yoga for sex to this then-67-year old pastor. (Actually, I didn’t tell him my profession until the end of the session, after we had established a bond, and he asked what I did. Some unchurched or non-religious people get weird when they find out I’m a clergyman.)
What he said in our session made sense to me in terms of the physical techniques. Utilizing all the deep breathing, pelvic floor techniques, and relaxation you get from practicing yoga can probably give you better sexual performance. He also claimed that yoga can help with premature ejaculation, improve the libido, and, of course, increase your stamina. Do lots of pelvic floor work. Move up and down several times in cobra pose; this places pressure and release on the pelvis. Poses with a pelvic thrust are especially good, he said, such as bridge, camel, and wheel. Eagle pose squeezes the genitals. So does mula bandha (root lock) combined with butterfly or bound angle pose
My young yoga teacher testified that yoga has been good for his sex life. I advised him at the end of our session that if he does this session again with older men in the class, he might want to be aware of aging and medical conditions that affect sexual performance, such as the loss of testosterone or the effects of chemotherapy.
Pelvic exercises for men and women, whether in yoga or in physical training, and being in good physical shape generally, can undoubtedly have a positive impact on sexual performance. With regard to Albert Moehler’s concern, these practices don’t depend on invoking spiritual energy to channel sexual energy—unless you give credence to the Tantric subtle body.
The Origin and Spread of Tantra
Tantra as we know it entered India in the fourth century, perhaps from Persia, and became a dominant village religion during the middle ages. It was primarily concerned with fertility and the powers of life. Sexual rituals are usually a part of fertility cults. Only later did it become an esoteric practice.
The Tantras are actually texts that “weave together” (which is what tantra means) spiritual and mundane ideas. It was not a system complete in itself but it influenced popular Hinduism, Buddhist traditions in India and Tibet, Jainism, Islam in India, Sikhism, Kashmirian Shivaism, and Taoism in China.
The Tantra movement emphasized the body as a microcosm of the universe and the abode of divinity, especially the divine feminine. Because it was anti-ascetic it rejected orthodox Brahmanism. It embraced the realities of everyday life, including diet and sex. Every woman became an incarnation of the goddess Shakti. Men, too, had this divine feminine within them because the power of Shakti (energy) was seen as residing in the body whereas the masculine Shiva (consciousness) was outside the body.
In India Tantra contributed to the development of Hatha Yoga, which is the most commonly practiced form of yoga in the world today. “Ha” is Sanskrit for sun and “tha”’ is moon. Embedded in Hatha yoga is the idea of the union of opposites, overcoming the dualism of solar and lunar energies, the masculine and feminine aspects of the self, the duality of mind and body, even bringing together the divine and the human.
Before there were yogis practicing Hatha Yoga as we know it, there was the virile hero who offered himself in sacrifice to hungry dakinis or yoginis (female demons and witches, respectively) by lying in fields or on mounds or in cremation grounds. The blood-thirsty dakinis or yoginis would fly down to eat him. He bought them off with his life-giving semen in exchange for their menstrual fluids (each empowering the other). The sexualized rituals did not have to do with copulating but with collecting and consuming sexual fluids, which could be exchanged orally or through upward genital extraction (upward suction).
In exchange for a successful encounter the virile hero could fly off with the yoginis, become a part of their coven, and receive powers from them. This became the basis of Tantra or Kaula rituals. As David Gordon White wrote, “Kaula practitioners were primarily concerned with this-worldly powers (siddhis) and bodily immortality (jivanmukti), with the enjoyment (bhukti) of said powers and immortality taking precedence over any ideal of consciousness raising or disembodied liberation from cyclic rebirth (mukti), embraced by the more conventional Tantric practitioners” (David Gordon White, Kiss of the Yogini: “Tantric Sex” in its South Asian Contexts [Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 2003], 10). The fact that kings became patrons of and perhaps even participants in Tantric rituals and built temples in which to enact them indicates that worldly powers and blessings were expected from the successful encounter, not just spiritual enlightenment
Sublimation of Tantric Practice
So how did Tantra become a quest for spiritual enlightenment? According to White, it was through a process of sublimation (see Kiss of the Yogini, chapter 8). Respectable householders desired to participate in the nocturnal Tantric rites, and as a result the rites were sanitized and spiritualized between the tenth and twelfth centuries. The fierce yoginis were internalized in the energies of the chakras of Hatha yoga. The goddess Shakti was represented as the coiled serpent (kundalini) located within the base of the pelvis. She was waiting to be awakened and sent soaring through the chakras to unite with Shiva outside the body (just above the crown of the head), resulting in a union of energy and consciousness. This was the experience of enlightenment. It was pursued by creating vibrations (spanda) through the chanting of mantras as well as breathing exercises.
The modern Kundalini Yoga, branded by Yogi Bhajan in his “Healthy, Happy, Holy Organization (3HO) in 1968, tries to hasten the process through chanting (mantras), using breath work (pranayama) connected with vigorous movement (kriyas), employing muscular locks (bandhas) and hand positions (mudras). Although a Kundalini Yoga class might initially resemble a typical Hatha Yoga class with asanas and meditation, the practice includes a variety of other elements to encourage the awakening of the Kundalini energy and it can be pretty vigorous.
In historic Tantra the novice or initiate needed a guru or master to guide him through the process of awakening the kundalini. The ritual process was exceedingly complicated. (See the description in Mircea Eliade, Yoga: Immortality and Freedom [Princeton University Press, 1958), 219–27.) The result was what White calls the “masculinization of Tantric initiation” in which the male guru essentially replaced the female yogini. The whole practice was brought within the purity constraints of High Hinduism. If the prohibited foods (e.g., meat, wine, fish, parched grain) and bodily fluids (e.g. vaginal fluids and semen) were consumed, it was to affect a breakthrough of consciousness rather than to experience transformation effected by the substances themselves. The doing of the earlier, sexually raw Tantric rites was subsumed under gnosis (knowledge) in the quest for enlightenment. The gnostic character of esoteric tantra lent itself to the New Age quest for spiritual freedom.
New Age Neo-Tantra interpreted the infamous last of the five Ms (maithuna) as sexual intercourse. Originally it was not sexual intercourse as an end in itself. The object was to obtain and consume the sexual fluids. Tantric adepts practiced coitus reservatus (ejaculation control) in order not to ejaculate but to reverse the flow of the semen from out to the body to up into the body while also sucking the vaginal fluids of the woman into his body through the penis. The life forces were thus retained and the body’s energy was not lost. This technique was not learned without a guide (a guru) and it was practiced and controlled within ritualized sex. Some of the early New Age gurus like Charles Muir, the founder of the Neo-Tantra movement in the U.S., held workshops to teach the techniques of ejaculation control not so much to retain the semen in one’s body as to produce bigger and better orgasms.
Neo-Tantra Sex Workshops
Your ordinary yoga class doesn’t necessarily promote sex (although the sexual energy is there in the body, isn’t it?). But Tantra historically has and does. The temple frescos on Indian temples show not only ejaculation control, as above, but also ordinary copulation and masturbation. One would get the impression that India was awash in sex and this was undoubtedly the reason Hindu Brahmans taught and practiced renunciation of material reality as illusion, including those five-Ms, in order to obtain enlightenment. Tantra’s metaphysics regarded the world as real and the body as a microcosm of the world. Whatever was in the cosmos was in the body. Tantra’s theology of the divinity within the body made the idea of transgressing these forbidden fruits plausible. As George Feuerstein wrote, “If the world is in essence divine, so must be the body. If we must honor the world as a creation or an aspect of divine Power (Shakti), we must likewise honor the body” (Tantra: The Path of Ecstasy [Boston and London: Shambhala, 1998] , p. 53). The body’s needs, including for food and sex, are sanctified in Tantric rituals.
It is not surprising that what Feuerstein called “Neo-Tantra” dipped into the Tantra tradition to develop a ritualization of sex aimed not so much at producing sexual pyrotechnics as simply increasing intimacy between couples in a culture that has lost this, especially because of toxic masculinity. Tantra, which honors the divine feminine, has become the basis of modern sex therapy.
I’ve never experienced a Tantra sex workshop, but I interviewed a respected yoga teacher who has conducted workshops for couples. He told me that many couples attend looking to improve their lovemaking, which they usually identify with ejaculation and orgasm. One of the important aspects of Neo-Tantra workshops is to separate sexual intimacy from ejaculation. In fact, many ancient people believed that ejaculation is a loss of one’s life force and should be saved for procreation. Ancient yogis worked on achieving orgasm without ejaculation. Tantric workshops therefore work on intimacy and prolonging sexual pleasure without rushing to ejaculation. The processes used in the workshops usually build up sexual energy.
To slow down the rush to the finish line my friend begins with the couples clothed, holding hands, and making eye contact.
Some simple partner poses might be used to build trust and excitement, such as this partner side twist. Partner poses can also be fun and help the couple just to enjoy playing together. This couple is pulling each other into a twist.
A sensual massage is part of a Tantra workshop. It is important for the partners to experience touching each other. One partner massages the other partner face up and then they change places. This may be done clothed or naked. One possible massage approach my friend has used is to follow the chakras up the torso using different movements and intensities for each one, sometimes with the hand of the massager hovering just above the body of the recipient of the massage.
Showing honor to the lingam (penis) and yoni (vulva) is a touch that connects with medieval Tantra, as I will discuss below.
Part of a tantra couples experience or totally separate from that context may be a sacred tantric ritual in which the yoni or female vulva is worshiped. This ritual of yoni puja originated in India thousands of years ago. There are various forms in which this ritual can be performed — by a couple alone or in a group. An important prerequisite for worshiping the yoni is the purification of the mind from worldly ideas about yoni, the female genitalia, and from shame and guilt about the genitals that most of us carry. In the yoni puja ritual one might express reverence in front of the mystery of the Universe, of Shakti the divine mother, or simply the wonder of the feminine, divine or human.
The couple’s tantra workshop may also include a lingam (penis) massage that gives honor to the male sex organ.
The gay world Tantra has latched onto tantra as a way to expand sexual experience and generate mystical states. Tantra couples workshops have been held for same-sex couples just as for heterosexual couples. The German tantra teacher Armin Heining has conducted tantra massage sessions for gay men around the world. Workshops usually begin with breath of fire practices to awaken all the chakras.
Men wear sarongs throughout the experience until they are actually giving each other a tantric massage. The sessions employ some of the same bonding techniques as heterosexual tantra sex workshops. There is no rush to the genitals, but rather a slow build up of sexual energy,
Tantra sexuality workshops for gay men cover a wide array of topics related to body, mind, and spirit. As in workshops offered to heterosexual couples, participants are conducted in a safe, supportive, and non-judgmental environment. Practices will include meditation, conscious breathing, healing touch, massage and body work leading to heightening sexual energy and increased sense of intimacy that will lead to a lingam massage.
A variant of tantra workshops involving group activities is provided by the Body Electric School of Massage, created by former Jesuit Joseph Kramer. It offers Body Erotic weekend workshops to show men a different way to experience sexual arousal. They teach participants how to experience nudity, mutual touching, and arousal without the anxiety or compulsion to practice intercourse (anal for men) and achieve orgasm. The participants are taught to relax and allow the gathering sexual energy to suffuse through the whole body. Usually at the end of a session there is a group pile on as all the bodies become one, building up a powerful amount of sexual energy.
It’s All in the Breath
A tantra practice included in Hatha yoga is breath work (pranayama). In fact, in Tantra workshops the breathing exercises alter the body chemistry enough to prevent ejaculation so that sexual energy can build up in the body. A concluding practice might be the “big draw” of breath (inhaling), which is held by clenching the whole body and holding the breath until you need to let it go in a big explosion of exhaling. The exhale could be considered a kind of spiritual orgasm. A related practice is inhaling while sitting, holding the breath, and then blowing it out incrementally through the mouth as you fold over your legs. These tantra practices can be done in an ordinary yoga class (I have experienced them) and they have nothing to do with orgasm. When all is said and done, orgasm is not the purpose of Tantra ancient or modern. The purpose of tantric practice is building up and retaining energy, including sexual energy.
Criticism of Neo-Tantra by Scholars
Tantra scholars are very critical of Neo-Tantric sex workshops. Having surveyed Neo-Tantra publications, the eminent yoga scholar Georg Feuerstein concluded: “Their main error is to confuse Tantric bliss (ananda, maha-sukha) with ordinary orgasmic pleasure” (see Georg Feuerstein, Tantra: The Path of Ecstasy, xiv). Tantric bliss is achieved in the unity of being—the union of the self with the cosmos—, not in bigger and better orgasms.
Moreover, one must be properly initiated into Tantra if one expects to receive enlightenment, and lineages of teachers are not intact. (Lineage has been important to yoga, kind of like apostolic succession in some Christian traditions.) Mircea Eliade, the pioneering historian of religion who wrote his doctoral dissertation on yoga after spending time in India studying with DasGupta at the University of Calcutta and in Swami Sivananda’s ashram in the early 1930s, insisted that no one could experience Tantric initiation without being guided by a guru (see Mircea Eliade,Yoga: Immortality and Freedom [Princeton and Oxford: Princeton University Press, 1958], 206-7).
Gurus or masters were needed to guide students in awakening the kundalini (the goddess Shakti at the base of the torso who was conceptualized as a coiled serpent) and sending it up through the chakras of the subtle body to attain enlightenment (which few have succeeded in attaining) by being united with the god Shiva (consciousness) at the crown of the head.
So then, to the question, “does it matter?”
All this history raises several questions. (Isn’t that the purpose of studying history?) First, is there some validity to the Tantric subtle body even if it was discerned only when the earlier rites were internalized? Chinese medicine, for example, has a similar subtle body in its meridian system, which is used to good effect in acupuncture. Would this development of Tantra not be comparable to the development of doctrine in Christian theology or other religious systems?
Second, is Neo-Tantra a legitimate development in the evolving history of Tantra? By way of comparison, millions of yoga students around the world are practicing some form of Hatha Yoga that many of their teachers now know was influenced by the modern Northern European physical culture movement as appropriated by gurus like Krishnamacharyi, who synthesized it with medieval Hatha traditions. Modern postural yoga is not the practice of Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras. Patanjali gives little attention to postural yoga and a lot of attention to meditation and supernatural practices. Yet very few students stop practicing yoga even though its roots in classical yoga traditions are tenuous. Yet however tenuous, there are still some connections to be discerned. And in the meantime all kinds of new styles of yoga are emerging in the twenty-first century. So, too, some new applications of ancient Tantra have been made in the modern West and imported back into India.
Third, is there not still some connection between ancient Kaula rituals and Neo-Tantra? If there is, it would have to be in its focus on sexuality, because that’s what made Tantra distinct from other popular religious expressions (bhakti) in India. And it would have to take seriously the body as the location of interaction with divinity. Orthodox Christianity also affirms that in Holy Baptism the body becomes the temple of the Holy Spirit and that in Holy Communion we receive the body of Christ into our bodies. Through these means of grace Christians believe there is a union of the divine and the human, of Christ and the disciple. So at least the idea of the possibility of divinity dwelling within the human body is not incompatible with Christianity’s incarnational theology. In a sense Tantra itself is a theological system.
Fourth, if Neo-Tantra practitioners have developed some skills in helping couples became more open to each other, and even more adventurous with each other, more comfortable with intimacy (especially for men), is it not serving a worthy purpose in the modern world with its fracturing lifestyles in which we are overworked and tired and feel like sex is a duty or else abandon it altogether? As my friend who has done tantric couples workshops reported to me, he works on intimacy rather than successful ejaculations and big orgasms. Sexuality grounded in love for the partner, and commitment and openness to growth in that relationship, can deepen and strengthen the connection between them and intensify their sense of oneness as a couple. Sex can vary with the fluctuations in our lives, but that is no reason to lose a sense of intimacy.
That said, we also need to consider the bias against the goodness of sex that has existed in Christianity, especially in the West, and especially in America. Sex was tolerated for the purpose of procreation, but not for pleasure. The sheer normality of sex in human life has frightened overly-spiritualized Christians even within the bonds of marriage and family. There are a lot of barriers to the joy of the gift of sex that need to be broken down. The Neo-Tantra workshops certainly help to do that.
Yoga is not primarily about sex, but can have an impact on a healthy sexual life. The genitals are also a part of our bodies, and they can be stimulated by sensations created by breathing and postures. These sensations can be noted when they arise, and then move on. Maybe yoga teachers should point this out to their students. As my young male yoga teacher said, “Surely in the twenty-first century we can admit that yoga has something to teach us about sexual health.”
Pastor Frank Senn