Baptism, brief answers, children, Clergy Titles, contagion, Ecumenism, lament, liturgy, livestreaming, Lutheran, Lutheran identity, megachurch, offertory, Reformation, transgender, vestments

Frank Answers Briefly

This blog  is primarily about answering questions sent to me—if I am able and willing to do so—that don’t need an essay-type answer. So I decided to have a post here in which I respond to questions with just a brief answer. The most recent question and answer is on top.  I have also set up posts exclusively dedicated to answering briefly questions about communion practices and Advent and Christmas, some of which previously appeared here.

Table of Topics

Good Friday vesture and clergy dress – – April 8, 2022

Wednesday/ Friday Liturgies of Lament during Lent – February 26, 2022

The Vatican’s Invalidation of Thousands of Baptisms – February 15, 2022

Two Questions from a Korean Presbyterian Pastor and Professor – posted November 18, 2021

Are there any Lutheran megachurches?

Where are the children?

Sign of the Cross at the Invocation – August 10, 2020

Lutheran Pastors as Religious Oblates – August 1, 2020

The Response “The Word of the Lord” – April 24, 2020

Livestreaming Worship – March 13, 2020

Preventing Contagion – February 28, 2020

Offertory Ritual – February 27, 2020

Reformation or Reconciliation Sunday? – October 28, 2019

Praying to the Saints – November 1, 2018

Why Lutherans are Identified as Evangelical Catholics – October 31, 2018

Calling Pastors “Father” – October 23, 2018

Re-baptizing Transgender Persons – October 1, 2018

Saint Augustine, bishop and teacher of the church – a model for all pastoral theologians

Good Friday vesture and clergy dress

April 8. 2022

What are appropriate vestments for Good Friday? How should a priest not involved in the service dress?

Appropriate vestments for the Good Friday Liturgy are alb and red stole (passion red for Holy Week). It is a liturgy of the word, so a chasuble is not appropriate. For an outdoor procession such as the Via crucis, cassock and surplice would be appropriate. The presiding minister, if there is one, could wear a red or black cope in the procession. In prayer offices such as Tenebrae, appropriate vestments would be cassock and surplice. Clergy who are not participating in the service with a liturgical role should not be vested. Clerical attire, such as a cassock, would be appropriate.

Three ministers chanting the passion narrative. Could be either on Palm/Passion Sunday or Good Friday.

Wednesday/Friday Liturgies of Lament during Lent

February 25, 2022

Russia has just launched an unprovoked military invasion of Ukraine. We’re still dealing with the COVID-19 pandemic and the issues of global warming. New forest fires have broken out in California and Florida—a harbinger of more to come. Do you have any thoughts about how to bring these issues into our Lenten observance this year?

Yes. With liturgies of lament!

“My God, my God, why have you forsaken us?”

You have named intractable situations. NATO can’t come to Ukraine’s rescue with troops on the ground or planes in the air without the danger of provoking nuclear confrontation with Russia. Ukraine is in a precarious situation. No matter how it ends, there will be great destruction and millions of refugees. While the Omicron variant is “dying down,” and mask mandates are being lifted, the coronavirus is still lurking around and half of our U.S. citizens refuse to be vaccinated. Global warming is no longer contested, but the things we know to do to to lessen its effects we lack the political will to do. In all these lamentable situations, we can only plead with God for mercy and not wrath.

What has the church done in the past in the face of earthquakes, plagues, invastions and wars? They formed penitential processions and marched through streets and fields singing psalms of lament and litanies pleading with God to avert disaster and have mercy on us. “Good Lord, deliver us.” “Save us, O Christ.”

Luther “corrected” the Latin Litany and prepared a German version (both to be chanted) in 1529 when the Turks were besieging Vienna. Archbishop Thomas Cranmer rendered Luther’s Litany into English in 1544 when King Henry VIII was at war simultaneously with Scotland and France.

Resources for a liturgy of lament are available. Lutheran service books all have propers for a Day of Humiliation and Prayer or a Day of Penitence as well as a Day of Thanksgiving. They have all preserved the Great Litany from the Middle Ages that Martin Luther and Thomas Cranmer translated from Latin into German and English, respectively. Every Lutheran worship book has retained the Great Litany except Evangelical Lutheran Worship. Every Anglican Book of Common Prayer provides the Great Litany (the 1979 BCP of The Episcopal Church has it in traditional language). WHY DON’T WE USE THESE MATERIALS? Supplication must precede thanksgiving. Lament must come before praise (see Psalm 22).

Lament is prayer that expresses the seeming betrayal of expectation and hope. Lamentation before God and in the community of faith actually energizes people because it dares to name suffering, oppression, human intransigence, and provides an opportunity to wrestle with faith. We can repent of our blindness to reality and resolve to be more present to what afflicts us communally as well as individually. As in the Psalms, lament is both communal and personal. Confession and repentance and pleas for forgiveness and mercy and resolve to do better are appropriate for New Year’s Eve before we enter another year, hopefully of grace. Here’s an order of service for consideration for use on Wednesdays and/or Fridays during Lent, the traditional penitential days throughout the year.

Trisagion (thrice-holy hymn)

Salutation and Prayer of the Day from the Day of Penitence (LBW/ELW)/Day of Humiliation and Prayer (LW/LSB)

First Reading: Nehemiah 1:4—11a  or Joel 2:12—19

Psalm 6 or 130

Second Reading: 2 Corinthians 7:5–10 or1 John 1:5—2:2


Gospel: Matthew 6:16—21 or Luke 15:11–32


The Great Litany

Confession and Forgiveness


Great Thanksgiving

Lord’s Prayer

Lamb of God


Post-Communion Prayer

Benediction and Dismissal

Before you ask: the penitential liturgical color is violet.

The Great Litany could also be sung as the Entrance rite on the Sundays in Lent or as the Intercessions on those Sundays. As the days of spring (Lent refers to spring – the lengthening of the days) bring warmer weather, the congregation could process outdoors singing the Great Litany, as was traditionally done during Rogationtide (the days before the Ascension of our Lord).

A rogation procession in which the Great Litany was prayed.

The Vatican’s Invalidation of Thousands of Baptisms

January 15, 2022

What do you think of the Vatican declaring that thousands of baptisms performed by a priest saying “We baptize you…” instead of “I baptize you…” are invalid and need to be redone?

As it happens, I’m teaching a course on Baptism and Christian Initiation this term at Garrett-Evangelical Theological Seminary in Evanston, IL, and at the end of class today a student asked this question.

To be sure, the formula “I baptize you in the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit” has been traditional in Western Christianity. It is also used by Roman Catholics and Protestants. The Catholic argument would be that priest represents Christ, and it is Christ who baptizes. But that would not be true of a lay person (such as a nurse in a hospital) baptizing a child in an emergency situation. Such emergency baptisms are regarded as valid. If the baptized child survives, the baptism is affirmed in a fuller order of baptism in the church, but the actual baptism is seldom repeated. Moreover, the Roman Catholic Church recognizes the validity of the baptisms performed in the Eastern Orthodox Churches, which use a passive formula: “N is baptized in the Name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit.” No pronouns needed.

In the New York Times story about this priest’s baptisms in Phoenix, it was reported that this sent many people to look at videos of their own baptism. Lo and behold, it turns out that the “we” formula has been used by other priests also since Vatican II. Their idea was perhaps to pick up the communal aspect of baptism as an initiation rite of the church as the body of Christ in the world. Several Catholic priests who looked at their baptism videos saw that they were also baptized by priests using the “we” formula. Now there’s an interesting situation! And, of course, the thousands of people baptized with this erroneous formula wonder about the validity of their marriages. And should people with invalid baptisms cease receiving Communion until their baptismal status is rectified? Some pious Catholics might even worry about the salvation of of their loved ones who received the “we” baptism and are now deceased. So many thousands of Catholics who were baptized in good faith have now been put into bad faith.

What more is required for a valid Christian baptism than that it is performed in the context of the faith community (church) using water in the Trinitarian name? Are all these “we” baptisms to be redone? Is the Catholic Church becoming anabaptist by re-baptizing thousands of people? The Nicene Creed that Catholics recite at Mass states, “We acknowledge one baptism for the forgiveness of sins.” Re-baptism undermines faith in the promise of Christ, “The one who believes and is baptized will be saved” (Mark 16:16).

This is obviously the pronouncement of bureaucrats in the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith who are out of touch with the reality of the lives of the people of God. Perhaps the Vatican rather than the local bishop needed to deal with this because they had a sense that the practice was more extensive than just one priest in Phoenix performing “we” baptisms. It should have been possible to call attention to the requirement that priests use the prescribed formula without invalidating countless baptisms. The pastoral Pope Francis needs to issue a declaration that these baptisms will be accepted, erroneous formula notwithstanding, for the sake of the consciences of those who were baptized in good faith with the “we” formula, and that the Catholic Church will not perform thousands of re-baptisms. It also needs to be affirmed that it is God, Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, who baptizes, and our baptisms are valid if they are done in that name.

Two Questions from a Korean Pastor and Professor

Answered November 15, 2021

I received a list of questions from a Korean Presbyterian pastor and professor, mostly about liturgy and worship, to be used as an interview article which will be published in Korean. Here are his last two questions, for which my answers may be of wider interest to English readers.

Are there any Lutheran megachurches?

I’ve seen statistics showing that there are about 3-7 million Lutherans in the United States now. That’s a large number. Yet I’ve never seen or heard about a big(mega) Lutheran church. This tells me that the local churches have a small number of church members, but the Lutheran churches collectively have many church members. Is there a reason for this?

Mount Olivet Lutheran Church Minneapolis is the largest Lutheran congregation in the U.S.

Answer: The current number of Lutherans in the U.S. in all Lutheran church bodies is probably around 6 million. You are correct that there are not many Lutheran megachurches—less than a dozen. Our most famous one was the Community of Joy in Scottsdale, Arizona that had a congregation of 12,000. It has recently developed more of an interest in making disciples than engaging in “entertainment evangelism” and left the ELCA to merge with Dream Church, which was formerly a Pentecostal Assemblies of God.

I know megachurches are big–really big!–in South Korea. The concept of the megachurch comes out of the evangelical revival movements. Most of them are in the suburbs and with their campuses they reflect the tradition of the American frontier camp meetings. They operate with what is called “decision theology” (for example, making a “decision for Christ” as in the Billy Graham crusades). This doesn’t fit with the Lutheran emphasis that God made a decision for us in the death and resurrection of Christ, and we are initiated into Christ’s death and resurrection in Holy Baptism. Lutheran congregations have focused on the means of grace, the word and the sacraments, as central to worship.

Messiah Lutheran Church in Fort Wayne, IN worships in a contemporary building and has projection screens high up so that they don’t obscure the central focus on the altar and pulpit.

We have some congregations with thousands of members, especially in Minnesota. Mount Olivet in Minneapolis has 14,000 members but isn’t considered a megachurch, just a big congregation. (See the picture above this answer.) These are traditional congregations that use some version of the Lutheran liturgy, even if some also have contemporary music. Most of our congregations are small, with only 50-100 people at worship. Our people value congregations in which people know and care for one another. We should also remember that most of these congregations were founded by immigrants from Germany and the Scandinavian countries. (Mount Olivet, for example, was founded by Swedish immigrants.) Ethnic culture may have limited Lutheran outreach, but it also provided a strong social bond that helped to keep people together. So collectively we have declined in membership less rapidly than some other mainline Protestant denominations.

Central Lutheran Church in downtown Minneapolis, NOT originally founded as an ethnic congregation, has the largest worship seating capacity of any Lutheran church building in the Western Hemisphere (I’ve heard about 3,000).

Where are the children?

It seems that the number of young people and children was small when I visited your Lutheran Church. At this point when the next generation is disappearing in church, are there any alternatives being discussed at the denomination-level?

Immanuel Lutheran Church in downtown Evanston, IL, where I served as pastor (1990–2013).

When I arrived at Immanuel in 1990 the only young children belonged to our family and the organist’s. But my pastoral predecessor had told the baby boomers that if they want to grow the congregation, they had better start having babies. They did. We had a number of children born into the congregation in my early years at Immanuel and even had an active youth group. We were able to send youth to ELCA Youth Gatherings, on mission trips, and we put on a number of plays for the congregation. By the time you visited twenty years later many of those kids had gone off to college. As a downtown church surrounded by high rise condos, we weren’t in a community in which there would be a lot of families with young children moving in. We also had a steady stream of university graduate students who moved into and out of the congregation, although a few stayed in the area and became members.

The reality is that the U.S., like European and several East Asian countries, are not reproducing their populations. The members of the millennial generation are marrying later in life and don’t seem interested in procreation. Sheltering at home during COVID-19 didn’t cause births to spike, but actually depressed birth rates even further. Perhaps COVID anxieties were depressing libidos. The influx of new immigrants in the U.S. is not offsetting long term trends in fertility. This affects school populations and the work force as well as churches. For example, in spite of immigration into Chicago the population of the Chicago Public Schools plunged from 434,000 students in 2003 to 330,400 students in 2020. The whole state of Illinois has lost population over the last ten years.

As my predecessor said, if you want to grow the church, start having babies. I have no idea whether these demographic trends are being discussed in my denomination or any denomination. I’m a retired pastor and not in touch with what’s happening any more. But I’m sure congregations will not flourish if they have more funerals than baptisms. Even the megachurches stand to lose members over the long haul if they don’t convince their young members to get married and produce more children. This is the biggest issue. Young adults have usually drifted away from the church when they go off to the universities, but they returned to church to get married and raise the families. If young adults aren’t getting married and having children, they’re also not returning to church. Our congregations will continue to age.

Cast of “Joseph and His Brothers” at Immanuel in 2012. Yours truly is wearing the Arab headpiece second from the left in the back row, playing the role of Jacob.

The one area where we see church growth is in the start-up of new immigrant congregations, mostly Hispanic, Asian, and African. These congregations have many children. We should become more welcoming of immigrants, become more multi-cultural in our worship (as the early Lutherans were), and learn more global music.

Baptisms in a Hispanic congregation of the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod

August 10, 2020

The Use of the Sign of the Cross at the Invocation

It may just be my growing curmudgeon -ess, but increasingly I am watching the sign of the cross at the invocation being made as if it is a blessing for the congregation.  A “blessing” of the pandemic is the opportunity to see multiple pastors at work, including my own bishop, and he and many others are doing this.  Outside of page 117, “The Sunday Assembly,” and it’s instruction, my own understanding is that it is a remembrance of my baptism. I am not certain that I could, or should, give a satisfactory explanation as why this use of the Invocation as a blessing is not appropriate (or so it feels to me). Or perhaps there is some use of this I am unfamiliar with.  I am wondering if you might provide that background and explanation for the sign of the cross and the invocation?

girl making the sign of the cross on her forehead

Your understanding is correct. The sign of the cross is used in connection with the Trinitarian Name as a remembrance of baptism. In the ancient catechumenate the sign of the cross was the first sacramental sign given to those who were beginning their journey to the font, where they would be joined to Christ in his death and resurrection. St. Augustine of Hippo, for example, received the sign of the cross as an infant even though he wasn’t baptized until age thirty. Even not yet baptized he considered himself a Christian because he bore on his brow the sign of the cross.

An invocation is a prayer for God’s blessing on us. Hence it is made on our own body, including by the presiding minister. A benediction is a word of promise spoken by the presiding minister to the congregation. Hence the sign of the cross is made over the congregation by the presiding minister; the worshipers apply that blessing to themselves by making the sign of the cross on themselves. Lutheran pastors seem confused about this. Perhaps it would help to differentiate the invocation as a prayer (we all pray together — in the older books facing the altar) and the benediction as a word of proclamation (in the older books the PM faces the congregation) . Perhaps PMs got confused with the free standing altar. But there’s still a difference between prayer and proclamation.

I would add that if the presiding minister invokes some other name or designation of God or places the blessing of some other name or designation of God than “Father, Son, and Holy Spirit,” as a worshiper I do not make the sign of the cross on myself because that is not the name in which I was baptized. That includes “Creator, Redeemer, Sanctifier” (a job description for a deity) or “holy Trinity, one God” (a theological affirmation). These are not names.

There are other practices. For example, in the Byzantine Liturgy the entrance rite begins with the priest or bishop blessing “the kingdom of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit.” At that those words the priest makes the sign of the cross with the Gospel Book over the altar space. Originally it marked the beginning of the entrance procession and taking possession of the worship space for the kingdom of God. Those attending bow their heads deep and low, making the sign of the cross on themselves in the Eastern way, seeking the blessing “of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.” Perhaps the same gesture would apply in The Book of Common Prayer (1979), Rite 2, when the presiding minister says, “Blessed be God: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit,” and the people respond: “And blessed be his kingdom, now and forever. Amen” — making the sign of the cross with the Gospel Book over the altar before placing it on the altar.

Blessed be the kingdom of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, now and always and unto the ages of ages.

August 1, 2020

Lutheran Pastors as Religious Oblates

What are your thoughts around a Lutheran pastor becoming an oblate (or associate or other terms) of a Benedictine, Franciscan, or Trappist order (whether Roman Catholic or Episcopal)?  
I know several who are, and they mention how having a rule of life (including commitment to the Daily Office) helps them pastor.

There’s nothing wrong with Lutheran pastors becoming oblates of a religious order. Third order Benedictines or Franciscans are usually lay people who support the order and follow the Rule as they are able as married men or women with family responsibilities and secular jobs. There are, in fact, Lutheran Benedictines and Franciscans. The Congregation of the Servants of Christ is a Lutheran monastic community at St. Augustine’s House in Oxford, MI. Oblates are actually men who are interested in the monastic life and live with the community in an intentional way that might lead to becoming professed monks. However, the Fellowship of St. Augustine is a group of pastors and lay people who support the congregation, follow its prayer cycle, and attend one or more retreats at the monastery. For more information visit:

Chapel of the Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, St. Augustine’s House, Oxford, MI

Lutheran pastors are also welcome to join the Society of the Holy Trinity, which is an inter-Lutheran ministerium and pastoral oratory. It’s Rule is helpful to Lutheran pastors in praying the Daily Offices, practicing individual confession and forgiveness, experiencing collegiality in local chapters, and attending chapter retreats and the annual General Retreat. For more information visit:

Society of the Holy Trinity 2015 General Chapter at St. Mary of the Lake Universty/Mundelein Seminary

April 24, 2020

The Response “Thanks be to God”

When did Lutherans start ending their readings during the Liturgy of the Word by saying, “The Word of the Lord; Thanks be to God?” Why?

The custom of announcing the lessons goes back to the twelfth century. When the custom began of announcing the end of the readings is uncertain. The first and subsequent editions of the Book of Common Prayer concluded readings in the daily prayer offices with “Here endeth [such a] chapter of [such a] Book.”  The custom was carried over to the Epistle in the Service of Holy Communion. Lutheran worship books in English picked up this custom of announcing the end as well as the beginning of the reading.  The Common Service Book (1918) and the Service Book and Hymnal (1958) had: “Here endeth the Epistle of the Day.” The SBH had added an Old Testament Lesson and it was concluded with the words, “Here endeth the Lesson.” The idea was catching on among the Western Churches that the people should respond to the readings. To say “Here endeth the Lesson” with “Thanks be to God” didn’t seem appropriate. When the Roman Missal of Paul VI was promulgated in 1969 (in English in 1970), the response to Scripture readings except the Gospel was: “The Word of the Lord. R/ Thanks be to God.”  With the adoption of versions of the Roman Lectionary during the 1970s this response was incorporated into the worship books of other denominations, including Lutheran Book of Worship (1978). It has become an ecumenical response that is familiar in now in a number of Protestant traditions. With Evangelical Lutheran Worship (2006) other words have been added as options, such as “Word of God, word of life.” Why? I don’t know.

March 13, 2020

Livestreaming Worship

As the coronavirus pandemic makes its way across the globe, churches are closing for group activities, including worship. Sunday worship is important for Christians. Many churches have livestreaming capabilities. What kind of worship should we present? Should livestreamed Sunday worship without a congregation present include Holy Communion?

I think what is livestreamed should be as close as possible to the worship services congregations are used to, and to the way they are usually conducted. Congregations using online communications could send the worship bulletin electronically to its members with their weekly e-newsletter so that congregants can follow the service from home.

The pastor and organist/musician would be present. Candles are lighted on the altar. The pastor wears customary vestments. A couple of lay people might be present (spaced out) to serve as a reader (Scripture, intercessions) and a singer (to assist in singing the hymns and liturgical chants). Most of the service would be spoken but at least the hymns should be played and the stanzas sung by those present. Some of the people watching at home might join in singing. Copies of the order of worship can be made available online.

In the absence of a congregation Holy Communion should not be celebrated. It would be valid but not a good sign since only the few people present could receive while the rest of the congregation watching at home is excluded. Protestants would not be into “ocular Communion,” that is, receiving a spiritual benefit just from seeing the sacrament. We have taught that the sacrament is meant to be consumed as food and drink. This means that a form of Ante-Communion (liturgy of the Word) would be used or Morning Prayer (Matins).

The spiritual preparation of the people to join in an actual virtual worship service from home should receive attention. As much as possible the congregation at home should switch gears from other activities to prepare themselves for worship. If the live streamed Sunday service is to be an act of worship, viewers must intentionally make an effort to enter into God’s presence.

Preparing for worship is a ritual process in which we must step out of the ordinary routines of life and enter into a time of preparing hearts and minds to hear God’s word and be receptive to the work of the Holy Spirit, just as we would ideally do when we cross the threshold on Sunday morning into the worship space to do the assembly’s liturgy. Since this is Sunday worship at home, the fellowship time after worship could be kept by preparing coffee and refreshments. As far as possible retain the Sunday morning routines. The members of the congregation will long to be able to return to experiencing social closeness instead of social distance.

February 28, 2020

Preventing Contagion

Question: Any suggestions around adapting worship practices in light of Coronavirus?  I suspect we probably should be already during flu season.
Contact points include handshaking before worship, passing of the peace, passing the offering place, communion, and handshaking in the receiving line.
The pastor touches everyone, so everyone “downstream” gets everyone else’s whatever!
I remember reading in “Lutheran Partners” magazine in the early ’90s that the common cup was more sanitary than intinction or individual cups?  Has to do with the silver in the cup (not so with ceramic) and the wine (not so with grape juice), and also the wipe and rotate method.

I’m reluctant to give an authoritative answer to this issue because at this time there’s a lot we don’t know about this virus. Hence it’s called “novel” (new). As information about and experience with this coronavirus increases I’m sure denominations will come out with recommended guidelines about the interaction of people in worship if, as expected, the virus begins to spread more widely through society and around the world. Gathering in church buildings might also be prohibited.

However, you are right that many churches haven’t adopted anti-contagion practices during the flu season and this year it has been a more aggressive  strain than usual. Statistics indicate that millions of Americans have had flu or flu-like symptoms. As of this writing, during the 2019-2020 flu season in the U.S. some 16,000 people have died and 280,000 people have been hospitalized, according to preliminary estimates from the CDC.  The new coronavirus seems destined to pass these figures by far.  

Worship in church buildings will limit interpersonal contact. It is not necessary for the pastor to shake hands with people or for people to greet each other with a handshake.  People can exchange the sign of peace by making a peace sign or bowing slightly to each other.  It is not necessary to pass the offering plates through the pews. People can deposit their offerings in a receptacle before or after the service. Whether wafers or loaves of bread are used for Holy Communion, those who handle the elements can wear protective latex gloves.  Those who distribute the elements should rub disinfectant into their hands and fingers. You are correct that the CDC has concluded that drinking wine with alcoholic content from a silver or gold-inlay  chalice, that is wiped with a purificator after each imbibing, has a low risk of transmitting germs (although this seems counterintuitive to a lot of people). Intinction would entail a higher risk of transmitting germs because people’s finger tips dip into the wine along with the bread. Individual glasses would have to be washed in a commercial grade dish washer because fingers and lips touch the rims of the little glasses. Chalices fitted with a pouring lip could be used to pour the wine into individual classes. (Congregations that use disposable plastic containers should be encouraged to cease and desist from contributing to environmental pollution!) The chalice should also be washed with hot water and detergent and altar guild members who place the individual glasses in a tray should wear latex gloves. Since the whole Christ is received under either species (the doctrine of concomitance) communicants concerned about the cup could receive the bread only. The bread or wafer should be slightly dropped into cupped hands rather than placed directly in the hand.

People might have to allow for the recommended six feet of distance between bodies in the pews (except for families) and wear masks. When joining a procession for communion worshipers would have to be spaced 6 feet apart. People wearing masks can still speak. Whether they should sing, however, needs to be reconsidered in the light of the fact that the virus can be spread by aerosol particles (which is the reason for wearing masks).

We should pray urgently that this scourge passes away as quickly as it came. But considering the speed with which this novel coronavirus is spreading, we may reach a critical point at which public worship services will have to be suspended, as is already happening in Italy. We will need to be prepared for that situation.

PARANAQUE, PHILIPPINES – FEBRUARY 09: Filipinos wearing facemasks attend Sunday mass at a church on February 9, 2020 in Paranaque, Metro Manila, Philippines. The first Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) death outside of China was reported in the Philippines last February 2, and the country currently has 3 confirmed cases of the virus. With over 37,500 confirmed cases around the world, the virus has so far claimed over 800 lives. (Photo by Ezra Acayan/Getty Images)

February 27, 2020

Offertory Ritual

An ongoing question in our parish is about the necessity, or lack thereof, for two actions; “Is an offertory canticle necessary after either a hymn or another musical offering,” and “Is it necessary for the assembly to rise as the gifts are presented?” For more clarity, occasionally when a hymn or hymn anthem is sung, the offertory canticle has been omitted, and the assembly stands and sings the final stanza of the hymn as the gifts are presented. This causes some confusion for our ushers, as well as the assembly. Our pastor would like to get rid of a separate canticle altogether and simply have the ushers collect the offering and then come forward and present the gifts, simultaneous to any musical offering or hymn, and then have the assembly stand at the Great Thanksgiving, when no Offertory Prayer is used. When we have tried this, occasionally there are a few folks who stand as the gifts are brought forward, due to habit. Maybe a couple of better questions are, “Is it better liturgical practice for the assembly to stand and sing a separate offertory canticle as the gifts are presented,” and “Is the assembly standing during the presentation a liturgical function, and if so, does ending this action constitute poor liturgical practice?”

Considering how fussy Lutherans can be about offertory ritual, it is ironic that Martin Luther and early Lutheran church orders omitted the offertory completely. Luther called it “tota illa abominatio.” That’s because it was the point at which the faithful paid stipends for votive masses (masses of special intention). In early Lutheran mass orders the altar and sacramental elements were prepared during the singing of the Creed and the faithful deposited monetary offerings for the common chest (poor box) when they came forward to receive communion. Today in Lutheran services the offertory is a very big ritual.

If we look back to the practice of the ancient Roman Church, the offertory constituted a big procession of the faithful who brought forward to the clergy gifts of bread and wine, oil and candles, and other items used in the Divine Liturgy. To cover this movement throughout the basilica the choir (Schola Cantorum) sang psalms appointed as propers for the day.  The liturgical action didn’t cease while people just listened to the choir.

What would make liturgical sense is that whatever is sung at the offertory covers the action of gathering the gifts and setting the table. That may be a choir anthem (chosen for its appropriateness to that day in the church year calendar and lectionary) and/or a hymn sung by the congregation and/or a psalm or canticle. The amount of singing depends on how much music is needed to cover the action. It may fluctuate depending on the day in the liturgical year and the expected attendance as well as whether there is a choir anthem and how long or short it is.  These variables can be known in advance of preparing an order of service. The people may remain seated during all of this and the gifts (including the bread and wine) are brought forward to the ministers as soon as the ushers/gift bearers are ready to do so.  The people stand for the offertory prayer or Great Thanksgiving.

For what it’s worth, in the Episcopal Church I attend we usually have (and need) both a choir anthem and a congregational hymn. The congregation stands for prayer, not for the presentation of the gifts and setting of the table.

October 28, 2019

Reformation or Reconciliation Sunday?

Question: Why didn’t the proposal to make Reformation Sunday Reconciliation Sunday take off?

Answer: I suspect that the proposal to turn Reformation Day/Sunday into Reconciliation Day/Sunday didn’t take off because there’s nothing to celebrate. Reconciliation between Lutherans and Catholics is a hope, not a fact. It is based on the successes of contemporary ecumenical dialogue and cooperation, such as the Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification and the involvement of the Roman Catholic Church in the observance of the 500th anniversary of the Reformation. Reformation, on the other hand, is something that historically happened and Lutherans have several centuries of tradition in observing it liturgically. It has become a way of dusting off and looking again each year at our Lutheran heritage. If the idea of a Reconciliation Festival is to have any currency, it will have to be at the local level (between dioceses/synods, parishes/congregations) where relationships between Lutherans and Catholics are being cultivated and sustained by continual dialogue and cooperation.

Another possibility is for the Roman Catholic Church to also celebrate a Reformation Festival. After all, what the Roman Catholic Church has been for the last five centuries has also been shaped by the Reformation—the Catholic Reformation. In modern times the festival has prompted us to ask about the continuing relevance of reformation. Both Lutherans and Catholic have seen the need for continuing reform. Ecclesia semper reformanda. “The church must always be reformed.” I dare say that in the wake of the pervasive sexual abuse scandals throughout the world the Catholic Church today is in need of institutional and spiritual reform today as thorough as what occurred after the Council of Trent—reform that touched the whole ecclesial body from the papacy to the parish.

Local Catholic bishop of Rome (Francis) visits local Lutheran pastor (Jens-Martin Kruse) at Chiesa Evangelica Luterana (Evangelical Lutheran Church of Rome) 15-11-2015
@Servizio Fotografico – L’Osservatore Romano

November 1, 2018

About Praying to the Saints

Question: Did the Lutheran Reformation throw the baby out with the bathwater when we rejected the cult of saints? The biggest critique I hear from Roman Catholics and Eastern Orthodox is that asking the saints to pray for you is just like asking one of your living friends to pray for you. Which got me thinking, with our doctrine of the communion of saints that we confess in the creeds, I wonder if we could make an argument of asking the saints to pray for us.

Answer: I refer you to my article, “Frank Answers About Saints in the Lutheran Church.”  Lutherans do not pray to the saints, claiming the sole mediatorship of Christ as the main reason. But the Lutheran Confessions (Apology, Article 21) grant that “the saints pray for us.” So I suppose there isn’t a need to ask them to do so.  However, I wonder: how do we address the dead?  What consciousness (mind) do the dead have?  What is the substance of the soul apart from the body? What is the relationship between the body, the mind, and the soul?  I refer you to my articles, “Frank Answers About What Happens After Death” and “Frank Answers About the Soul.” In what sense can “saints in heaven” hear earthly prayers? Wouldn’t they need to be like God?  I think we need to hear Catholic and Orthodox theologians deal with these kinds of questions. I think that we can certainly pray with the saints, just as we join our voices “with angels and archangels and all the company of heaven” in singing the thrice-holy hymn (Sanctus).

October 31, 2018

About Why Lutherans Are Identified as Evangelical Catholics

Question:  Aren’t Lutherans Protestant? Why would some theologians like Martin Marty suggest we call ourselves evangelical catholic and reject the terms Protestant or even Lutheran?

Answer: The issue is one of historical and theological identity. The name “Protestant” was first used of those who “protested” the Edict of Speyer (1529), which revoked the Recess of Speyer (1526) that left the determination of religion in each territory and city of the Holy Roman Empire up to the governing authorities until a general council could settle the religious differences in the Empire. So, yes, Lutherans are among the first Protestants. 

The problem is that now every denominational group that is not Catholic or Orthodox is regarded as Protestant, not just the Lutheran and Reformed protesters. What do Lutherans have in common, say, with Pentecostals, who might also be identified as Protestants? As for the name “Lutheran,” it was originally a name of derision used by Catholic critics and Luther himself did not approve of it. He said his followers should simply call themselves “Christians.” The term “Evangelical” (gospel-centered) was also applied to Lutherans in Europe, often to distinguish them from the Reformed. But “Die evangelische Kirche in Deutschland” is quite different in character from American Evangelicalism, as are American Lutheran denominations and congregations that have “Evangelical” in their name.

Many Lutheran theologians since the 19th century have embraced the term “evangelical catholic” to indicate that Luther’s intention and actual Lutheran practice was to reform the Catholic Church, not to create something new. The Catholic creeds, the canon of Scripture, dogmas of the ancient church (Trinity, Christology, original sin, etc.), historic liturgical forms, and many church practices were retained by Lutherans. Theologians such as Archbishop Nathan Soderbloom, Gustav Aulen, Paul Tillich, Jaroslav Pelikan, Carl Braaten and many others have used moniker “evangelical catholic” as a description of Lutheranism as well as Martin Marty (and yours truly).

Jaroslav Pelikan (1923-2006), who popularized the identity of Lutherans as evangelical catholics, but converted to Eastern Orthodoxy in his later years.

October 23, 2018

About Calling Pastors “Father”

Question: When and why did Lutherans stop referring to pastors as “father”? I’m particularly confused by this since Luther seems to defend the practice in his explanation of the Fourth Commandment in the Large Catechism and was addressed by many of his colleagues as “reverend father.”

Answer: You are correct that in the explanation to the fourth commandment, “Honor you father and your mother,” Luther commends “spiritual fathers” along with, and even more than, biological fathers, heads of households, and rulers who are “fathers of their nations” (The Large Catechism I, 158). Contrary to “those in the papacy who have had themselves called ‘father,’…the name of spiritual father belongs only to those who govern and guide us by the Word of God. St. Paul boasts that he is such a father in 1 Corinthians 4[:15}, where he says ‘In Christ Jesus I became your father through the gospel.'”

Luther and many Lutheran clergy were addressed as “reverend father.”  I do not know when Lutherans generally stopped using this title of address. As to why, my suspicion is that it sounded “too Catholic,” which is the Lutheran default response to anything they don’t like. However, the title “Father” is still used  by some Lutherans today, especially those who regard themselves as evangelical catholics.

The Reverend Father, Doctor Martin Luther, teaching the Catechism

While I’m at it, Lutherans never call their ministers “Reverend.” “Reverend” is a written form of address preceded by “The.” Most Lutherans call their ministers “Pastor,” although properly speaking “Pastor” is the spiritual leader of a congregation or parish: e.g. The Reverend Doctor Johannes Bugenhagen, Pastor of the Wittenberg Stadtkirche. In the English tradition it is quite appropriate to address ministers as “Mister,” “Master,” or “Doctor,” according to their academic degree. I would add that if our ordained male ministers can be called “Father,” ordained female ministers can be called “Mother,” since the fourth commandment refers to honoring fathers and mothers, and “Reverend Mother” has also been a title of honor given to women heads of religious communities.

German Lutheran Pfarrer confirming youth

October 1, 2018

Re-Baptizing Trans-Gender Persons

Question: Some transgendered persons are seeking and receiving re-baptism as a way of establishing their new gender identity. How do you respond to that?

I know several trans (the preferred designation) people, including a former confirmand who has changed her gender from male to female. I don’t believe the science on transgender/transsexual (biology, psychology, anthropology, etc.) is completely settled because science is never completely settled. We continue to explore the mysteries of the universe and of the human body and mind. And even what we find requires interpretation. For example, a study using brain-imaging technology indicates that the brain structure of trans people appears to be shifted in the direction of the sex they identify with as opposed to the sex they were born with. But does the brain activity produce the gender behavior or does the gender behavior produce the brain activity? Embodied brain theory might suggest the latter.  But I’m not competent to deal with the science of gender dysphoria.

However, the theology of the body and the practice of baptism is settled, and I think I’m competent to deal with that. And I must deal with these issues because the doctrine of creation and the theology of baptism is important to the faith of the church.

So…to deal with the practice of baptism first (the question that has been asked): what gender or sex the person was when he/she/they were baptized doesn’t matter because baptism is not about biology or sexuality, gender or cultural identity. It is about forgiveness of sins, eternal salvation, and membership in the body of Christ. A human being with a body and soul is baptized into Christ and “in Christ there is neither male nor female” (Galatians 3:28). Baptism is rebirth by water and the Spirit (John 3:5). Baptism is being incorporated into the life of the Holy Trinity. It makes one an adopted child of God the Father, a member of Christ’s body in the world, and a bodily temple of the Holy Spirit. It is performed once because God’s word of promise (“The one who believes and is baptized will be saved”, Mark 16:16) is reliable. Hence the ecumenical Nicene Creed states, “We acknowledge one baptism for the forgiven of sins.”

Given all this, we should have no reason to despise our bodies. It is an expression of the “fall” of humanity that people (probably all people to some extent) are ashamed of or dissatisfied with their bodies (which means they are ashamed of or dissatisfied with themselves, since we are bodily creatures). People may be ashamed of or dissatisfied with their size or shape or particular body parts. What transgender people feel about their body differs from one person to another, so general statements cannot be made. They may, however, believe that they have been forced into the wrong gender by cisgender socialization. For example, boys play with trucks, girls play with dolls.

Nevertheless, I believe the church must have a way of pastorally accompanying transgender members. We do not abandon baptized members of the church. As Debra Soh writes in her new book, The End of Gender: Debunking the Myths about Sex and Identity in our Society (New York: Threshold, 2020), “it isn’t necessary to redefine ‘sex’ or eliminate the categories of ‘male’ and ‘female’ in order to facilitate acceptance of people who are different.” The one thing we cannot change is baptism into the death ands resurrection of Christ and communion in Christ’s body and blood. By these sacraments we are incorporated, embodied, into the body of Christ. As Christians that is the body we embrace and celebrate.

1 Comment

  1. Eugene A. Koene

    Wonderfully frank answers, Fr. Frank, as always.

    On the question of asking the saints for their prayers, the old Roman Catholic Baltimore Catechism answered, in response to the question of whether or how the saints are able to hear our prayers, that God reveals our needs to the saints. So in a real sense, any invocation addressed to a saint is really addressed to God, as an expression of our belief in the oneness of all God’s faithful in the communion of saints. I’m not sure whether the current Catechism of the Catholic Church addresses this issue. Suffice it to say that divine omniscience is not being attributed to the saints in heaven. On the other hand, since we advance “from glory to glory” and become “partakers of the divine nature” (2 Peter 1:4), I think it could be left as an open question. I personally do think we have thrown out the baby with the bathwater, and as heirs of the Reformation should reconsider this issue. A devotional practice that includes the saints in the fellowship of prayer is not unique to Rome, but is practiced in some form by all of the ancient Catholic churches (Orthodox & Oriental).

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