Sermon for the Festival of the Holy Trinity. Year A.
Preached at St. Augustine’s Episcopal Church, Wilmette, IL, June 11, 2017
Texts: Genesis 1:1-2:4a; Matthew 28:16-20
Genesis 1:1-2:4 New Revised Standard Version (NRSV)
Six Days of Creation and the Sabbath
1 In the beginning when God created the heavens and the earth, 2 the earth was a formless void and darkness covered the face of the deep, while a wind from God swept over the face of the waters. 3 Then God said, “Let there be light”; and there was light. 4 And God saw that the light was good; and God separated the light from the darkness. 5 God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And there was evening and there was morning, the first day.
6 And God said, “Let there be a dome in the midst of the waters, and let it separate the waters from the waters.” 7 So God made the dome and separated the waters that were under the dome from the waters that were above the dome. And it was so. 8 God called the dome Sky. And there was evening and there was morning, the second day.
9 And God said, “Let the waters under the sky be gathered together into one place, and let the dry land appear.” And it was so. 10 God called the dry land Earth, and the waters that were gathered together he called Seas. And God saw that it was good. 11 Then God said, “Let the earth put forth vegetation: plants yielding seed, and fruit trees of every kind on earth that bear fruit with the seed in it.” And it was so. 12 The earth brought forth vegetation: plants yielding seed of every kind, and trees of every kind bearing fruit with the seed in it. And God saw that it was good. 13 And there was evening and there was morning, the third day.
14 And God said, “Let there be lights in the dome of the sky to separate the day from the night; and let them be for signs and for seasons and for days and years, 15 and let them be lights in the dome of the sky to give light upon the earth.” And it was so. 16 God made the two great lights—the greater light to rule the day and the lesser light to rule the night—and the stars. 17 God set them in the dome of the sky to give light upon the earth, 18 to rule over the day and over the night, and to separate the light from the darkness. And God saw that it was good. 19 And there was evening and there was morning, the fourth day.
20 And God said, “Let the waters bring forth swarms of living creatures, and let birds fly above the earth across the dome of the sky.” 21 So God created the great sea monsters and every living creature that moves, of every kind, with which the waters swarm, and every winged bird of every kind. And God saw that it was good. 22 God blessed them, saying, “Be fruitful and multiply and fill the waters in the seas, and let birds multiply on the earth.” 23 And there was evening and there was morning, the fifth day.
24 And God said, “Let the earth bring forth living creatures of every kind: cattle and creeping things and wild animals of the earth of every kind.” And it was so. 25 God made the wild animals of the earth of every kind, and the cattle of every kind, and everything that creeps upon the ground of every kind. And God saw that it was good.
26 Then God said, “Let us make humankind in our image, according to our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the birds of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the wild animals of the earth, and over every creeping thing that creeps upon the earth.”
27 So God created humankind in his image,
in the image of God he created them;
male and female he created them.
28 God blessed them, and God said to them, “Be fruitful and multiply, and fill the earth and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea and over the birds of the air and over every living thing that moves upon the earth.” 29 God said, “See, I have given you every plant yielding seed that is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree with seed in its fruit; you shall have them for food. 30 And to every beast of the earth, and to every bird of the air, and to everything that creeps on the earth, everything that has the breath of life, I have given every green plant for food.” And it was so. 31 God saw everything that he had made, and indeed, it was very good. And there was evening and there was morning, the sixth day.
2 Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all their multitude. 2 And on the seventh day God finished the work that he had done, and he rested on the seventh day from all the work that he had done. 3 So God blessed the seventh day and hallowed it, because on it God rested from all the work that he had done in creation.
4 These are the generations of the heavens and the earth when they were created.
The Commissioning of the Disciples
16 Now the eleven disciples went to Galilee, to the mountain to which Jesus had directed them. 17 When they saw him, they worshiped him; but some doubted. 18 And Jesus came and said to them, “All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me. 19 Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, 20 and teaching them to obey everything that I have commanded you. And remember, I am with you always, to the end of the age.”
As we enter into summertime and can get out into the warmth of God’s world and enjoy its renewed fruitfulness, it seems appropriate to begin with the creation story from Genesis. It’s also good to look more deeply at what this so-called priestly account of creation really says. Sometimes it helps to be literal, that is, to pay attention to words and phrases and how they get translated. In this regard I would point out that the Hebrew text does not say “In the beginning God created.” It literally says, “In the beginning when God began to create…” The text suggests that creation is an ongoing activity. God didn’t just set everything in motion and then step back and let it run on its own, like a well-made clock, as the Deists of the Age of Enlightenment imagined. God continues to create, and God continues to redeem.
God had to redeem already “in the beginning.” God’s act of creation was already an act of redemption. You see, Genesis does not teach creation out of nothing. The Genesis text indicates that there was already something. The earth was there but without solid form. Modern cosmology tells us that our planet was a fiery ball of gases spun out from the sun. To the ancient Hebrew lack of form meant chaos, and the ancient Hebrews equated chaos with evil. The ongoing work of creation is God’s effort to bring order out of chaos, because chaos – evil – persists, as we know all too well.
Sometimes chaos continues in the uprising of the natural elements – earthquakes, fiery volcanic eruptions, tidal waves and floods, and hurricanes and tornadoes. Sometimes chaos takes the form of nation rising against nation, neighbor turning on neighbor with all-too-available firearms, community networks being neglected and needy people falling through the social net. God pronounced his work of creation “good” because it countered the persistence of evil. Because of the persistence of evil, creation’s created goodness must constantly be reclaimed.
We’re at the beginning of the summer vacation season. We have an opportunity to get out into the world of nature and enjoy the fruits of God’s six days of work. Our trips to the great outdoors should also remind us of our responsibility as stewards of God’s creation to care for the earth and its creatures.
But I would also point out that the priestly author of the first creation account in Genesis is really building a case for weekly Sabbath observance. God’s work on the six days leads to God’s rest on the seventh day, a day which God blessed and hallowed. That’s what the six days are all about. They represent work days and they are a lead-up to the seventh day, a day of cosmic rest.
The Jewish and Christian traditions have held that the proper human response to God’s rest is for us to also rest from our usual work. But this doesn’t mean that we do nothing. The purposeful use of the Sabbath is to worship God and study God’s word. To turn to God is to turn away from evil, at least every seventh day. God intended us to be not just workers, but also worshipers.
We Christians do not worship on the seventh day of the week, but on the eighth day. “Wait a minute,” you say. “There can’t be eight days in the week.” No, not in the time of this world. But we worship on the first day of the week, the day of Christ’s resurrection from the dead, and resurrection projects into eternity. Some early Christians called Sunday “the eighth day.”
What happened is that in the fourth century the Emperor Constantine proclaimed the Day of the Sun as a day of rest. This was intended to be a good stroke for both Sun worshipers and Christians. So what had been a work day in the Roman world (which is why Christians worshiped early in the morning or in the evening) became a day of rest. Sabbath ideas were then imported into Sunday.
But this Sunday celebrates the Holy Trinity. Why is the first Genesis creation story our reading on this particular day? Where is there a reference to the Trinity in this Old Testament text? You might think: well, the text says that God created through his life-giving breath (wind), and by his word. “…a wind from God swept over the face of the waters. 3 Then God said, ‘Let there be light;’ and there was light.”
The wind and the word become personified later in the Bible as the Holy Spirit and the Logos, the word or reason identified with the Son. So on this basis we can affirm that the God of creation is the Holy Trinity. God the Father creates by means of his Spirit and through his Word, incarnate in Jesus. “Through him all things were made,” says the Gospel of John. “For in him all things in heaven and on earth were created, things visible and invisible” (Colossians 1:16).
But the church fathers saw the Trinity more explicitly in verse 26. “Then God said, ‘Let us make humankind [the Hebrew is “adam”] in our image, according to our likeness.” Who is God talking to when he says “Let us make”? Is this just the so-called “plural of majesty,” like when the queen says “We are pleased?” If so, why isn’t this expression used elsewhere in the Bible? Is God talking to the heavenly creatures? Did they have a role in helping God to create humankind? No, they have no such creative power. The only solution is that God is talking to Godself. God is a plural personality.
Moreover, the text goes on to say that God created humankind plural: male and female. Humankind male and female is created to complement and complete each other, just as God in three persons complements and completes Godself. While there’s a lot of discussion today about gender being on a sliding scale, this isn’t about gender (which is a cultural construct); this is about biology. The male and female connect and procreate.
In the years before I retired I had a weekly evening Bible study group at Immanuel, Evanston. We began “In the beginning” with Genesis and worked our way through the Bible, verse by verse, chapter by chapter, book by book. We made it through the Books of Kings and Chronicles before the time came for me to retire. But I’ll never forget that when we completed Genesis, one of our regulars exclaimed, “Why, this book is all about sex!” Yes, it is. Begetting is about procreation. In the unfolding story of God creating a people of Abraham, it mattered who gave birth to whom.
Genesis 1 says that humankind is created in the image and likeness of God. In our need for one another we reflect the being of God. You can go in both directions with this. You can say that the fact of human sexual polarity and complementary points to God as a community of persons, and you can say that God as a community of persons creates humankind in his own image as a community of persons. As the second creation story in Genesis 2 says, adam is not meant to be alone. It is not good to be a self-contained organism which proceeds to develop itself. In order to develop and mature, we must have a partner, a companion, a “thou” to relate to my “I.”
Usually “I” and “thou” find expression in the marriage of a man and a woman. That’s not the only kind of relationship in which complementary and community can be experienced, but it is the most fundamental one for society. The second creation story in Genesis leads to the institution of marriage, just like the first creation story leads to the institution of the sabbath.
Yet even marriage can fail to attain its God-given potential if the couple lives only for each other. There are a lot of things people can enjoy with each other: in no particular order there’s work and vacation trips, music and art, sports and sex…and more. But in their love for each other, a couple does not reach their fulfillment when the two make their companionship an end in itself and are just taken up with each other.
Marriage doesn’t exist just for its own sake; it also exists for the sake of others, including for the sake of children. The blessing of God on marriage is found in the command, “be fruitful and multiply.” And if the gift of children is denied through no fault of the couple, God sends other blessings and gives other responsibilities; for God is always the Giver of every good and perfect gift. Being a foster parent and adopting a child are also ways one can receive the gift and responsibility of parenting. [Note: Trinity Sunday often falls on Father’s Day.]
If the institution of marriage is in trouble today (and it is in the Western world, especially in Europe where fewer and fewer couples want to get married and have children or they have children but don’t want to get married), it is because we continue to be more focused on “me” than on “community”. We’re more concerned with what I want, and what I desire, what I think I deserve, what I am afraid of, than with what is best for my partner, my family, my city, my nation, my world. While there may have been one generation called the “me” generation, the truth is that every generation is the “me” generation—from Adam and Eve on. Marriages stumble and crumble over issues of “me” over against “you.”
Families have difficulties and dissolve over issues of “me” over against “you.” Conflicts at work, tensions in neighborhoods, gang violence, hatred and intolerance between races, wars between nations, all get their start with issues of “me” over against “you.” That’s what we’re experiencing in our nation now with an intensity I’ve not known in my seventy-four years. How will this divisiveness ever be reconciled? If “me” over against “you” has been with us since the beginning, what hope is there of ever overcoming these tensions and conflicts?
Our hope, of course, is in Jesus Christ, and him crucified. Our hope is that as we sinners are reconciled with the Holy God through the sacrifice of Christ on the cross, we will be reconciled and restored to our brothers and sisters as well — so that through the cross of Christ humanity will be gathered into one, to live in peace with God, with others, and with the creation of which we are a part.
Medieval images of the Trinity depict the bearded Father holding up the crucified Son with the dove of the Spirit as the bond between them. It is worth noting that devotion to the Trinity, which resulted in the establishment of Trinity Sunday as a universal festival, emerged during a time of plague and warfare, of suffering and death. It’s like people needed the fullness of God to cope with the brutality of life.
Pope Benedict XVI, who as Joseph Ratzinger was truly one of the great Catholic theologians of the twentieth century, writes that the answer to this “me” against “you” or “I” against “Thou” is the Trinity, “that ultimate unity in which the distinction between I and Thou is not withdrawn, but joined to each other in the Holy Spirit. In God there are three Persons, and so God is precisely the realization of ultimate unity. God did not create an individual person so that he might be dissolved but so that he might open himself in his entire height and in his innermost depth — so that the Holy Spirit embraces the individual person and is the unity of the divided persons.” In practical terms, says Pope Benedict, “the Church in the deepest part of her nature, is the overcoming of the boundary between I and Thou — the union of all persons among themselves, through the radical transcendence of self, into eternal love.”
The Church is humankind being brought into the life of the Holy Trinity by the Holy Spirit working through the proclamation of the word and celebration of the sacraments. For this reason Jesus sends us forth to make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit and teaching them to observe everything that Jesus has commanded. In entering into the life of the Holy Trinity through Baptism, our “me” against “you” is replaced with Holy Communion—a relationship with God and others that transcends our self‑centeredness and is fused into that new creation that is called the Body of Christ.
This new relationship requires truly a death of the old me-centered Adam in Baptism, so that, as St. Paul writes, it will now be not I who lives, but Christ who lives in me. How does Christ live in me and in us together except by eating and drinking, ingesting and digesting the divine Godhead, present for us in the earthly gifts of bread and wine which we received in faith as the Body and Blood of God incarnate in Jesus Christ.
In Holy Communion we come together every Sabbath Lord’s Day to turn away from evil in the world – the world reverting to chaos – and face toward God the Holy Trinity who is always making all things new. We come in from the world and take our places at the table of God’s kingdom where there is always room for one more. Amen.
Pastor Frank C. Senn, STS, Evanston, IL